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Details

  • Tomb Owner
    Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)
    Kawab (G 7110-7120)
  • Excavator
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
  • Attested
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Meretites I
  • Alternate Reisner No
    G 7110-7120: G 7110
    G 7110-7120: G 7120
  • Correct Double Mastaba No
    G 7110
    G 7120
  • PorterMoss Date
    Khufu
  • Baer Date
    Middle of Dynasty 4
  • Site Type
    Stone-built mastaba
  • Shafts
    G 7110 A ; G 7110 B; G 7120 A ; G 7120 B; G 7120 Chapel a; G 7120 Chapel b; G 7120 Chapel c; G 7120 Chapel d; G 7120 X

Finds 277

Excavation Diary Pages 95

Maps & Plans 45

Drawings 33

Published Documents 9

Unpublished Documents 159

Full Bibliography

  • Bárta, Miroslav. "Serdab and Statue Placement in the Private Tombs down to the Fourth Dynasty." Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 54 (1998), pp. 66, 67.

    Baud, Michel. "La tombe de la reine-mère xa-mrr-Nbtj Ire." Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale 95 (1995), p. 13.

    Bolshakov, Andrey. "anx-wD.s: St. Petersburg-Cambridge." Göttinger Miszellen 188 (2002), p. 34, note 13.

    Brovarski, Edward. "Old Kingdom Beaded Collars." In Jacke Phillips with Lanny Bell, Bruce B. Williams, James Hoch and Ronald J. Leprohon (eds.) Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, and the Near East. Studies in Honour of Martha Rhoads Bell, Volume 1. San Antonio: Van Siclen Books, 1997, p. 147.

    Fischer, Henry G. Varia Nova. Egyptian Studies 3. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996, p. 222.

    Flentye, Laurel. "The Development of Art in the Eastern and GIS Cemeteries at Giza during the Fourth Dynasty: Iconography and Style." In Jean-Claude Goyon and Christine Cardin, eds. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists, Grenoble, 6-12 septembre 2004, vol. I. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 150. Leuven: Uitgeveru Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies, 2007, pp. 722, 726, 730, 733, note 3, fig. 1.

    Flentye, Laurel. "The Mastabas of Ankh-haf (G 7510) and Akhethetep and Meretites (G 7650) in the Eastern Cemetery at Giza: A Reassessment." In Zahi Hawass and Janet Richards, eds. The Archaeology and Art of Ancient Egypt. Essays in Honor of David B. O'Connor, Vol. I. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte, Cahier no. 36. Cairo: Supreme Council of Antiquities, 2007, p. 294, fig. 1.

    Flentye, Laurel. "The Mastaba of Meresankh III (G 7530/7540) in the Eastern Cemetery at Giza: An Archaeological and Art Historical Analysis." Bulletin of the Egyptian Museum 3 (2006), pp. 76-77, note 67, fig. 1.

    Hawass, Zahi. "Khufu's National Project: The Great Pyramid of Giza in the Year 2528 B.C." In Peter Janosi, ed. Structure and Significance: Thoughts on Ancient Egyptian Architecture, Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2005, p. 313.

    Holden, Lynn. "An Anubis Figure in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts." In William K. Simpson and Whitney M. Davis, eds. Studies in Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, and the Sudan. Essays in honor of Dows Dunham on the occasion of his 90th birthday, June 1, 1980, Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1981, p. 101.

    Jánosi, Peter. "Bemerkungen zur Entstehung, Lage und Datierung der Nekropolenfelder von Giza unter Cheops." Sokar 4 (1. Halbjahr 2002), pp. 7-8, unnumbered figures.

    Jánosi, Peter. "Aspects of Mastaba Development: The Position of Shafts and the Identification of Tomb Owners." In Filip Coppens, ed. Abusir and Saqqara in the year 2001. Proceedings of the Symposium (Prague, September 25th-27th, 2001). Archiv Orientální 70, No. 3 (August 2002). Prague: Oriental Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, pp. 341, 347, fig. 3.

    Jánosi, Peter. "The Tombs of Officials. Houses of Eternity." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, p. 38, note 63.

    Jánosi, Peter. "Gab es Kronprinzen in der 4. Dynastie?" Göttinger Miszellen 158 (1997), pp. 20-21, 26, note 66.

    Jánosi, Peter. "Die Grabanlagen der Konigin Hetepheres II." Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 123 (1996), pp. 46-48, 61, fig. 1.

    Jánosi, Peter. "The Queens of the Old Kingdom and their Tombs." Bulletin of the Australian Centre for Egyptology 3 (1992), p. 56, note 6.

    Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 187-188.

    Reisner, George A. "Note on Objects Assigned to the Museum by the Egyptian Government." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 36, No. 214 (April 1938), p. 30.

    Rzepka, Slawomir. "Hidden Statues and Reliefs in Old Kingdom Tombs." Göttinger Miszellen 164 (1998), pp. 103, 105.

    Simpson, William Kelly. The Mastabas of Qar and Idu, G 7101 and 7102. Giza Mastabas 2. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1976, p. vii, 1, fig. 1, pl. I.

    Simpson, William Kelly. The Mastabas of Kawab, Khafkhufu I and II. Giza Mastabas 3. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1978, pp. 1-9, 18, 28, figs. 2-18, pls. II-X.

    Smith, William Stevenson. "Old Kingdom Sculpture." American Journal of Archaeology 45 (1941), pp. 516, 519.

    Smith, William Stevenson. "The Origin of Some Unidentified Old Kingdom Reliefs." American Journal of Archaeology 46 (1942), p. 523-526, fig. 11.

    Smith, William Stevenson. "Inscriptional Evidence for the History of the Fourth Dynasty." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 11 (1952), pp. 114, 115, 117, 124, 126, figs. 2, 3, 5.

    Smith, William Stevenson. "The Old Kingdom in Egypt," The Cambridge Ancient History, rev. ed. of vols. I & II, Cambridge University Press, 1962, p. 28.

Photos 129

People 5

Ancient People

  • Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Original owner of G 7110, along with Kawab (owner of G 7120). Appears with her daughter Meresankh III in G 7530-7540 (east and west walls, main room), and in pair statue MFA 30.1456 (= 27-4-963 + 27-4-964 + 27-4-965). Later married to a king, possibly Djedefre (Radjedef) according to Reisner, but Khafre is also a possibility. Her association with G 7350, and its sarcophagus is uncertain. Also mentioned in tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Kawab (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Owner of G 7120, along with Hetepheres [II] (original owner of G 7110). Son of Khufu and Meretites [I]. Appears in chapel relief in tomb of his daughter Meresankh III (owner of G 7530-7540), main room (east wall), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt smsw n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xrp jAwt nTrt aA dwAw] hereditary prince, king's eldest son of his body, chief lector-priest, director of divine offices, assistant of (the god) Duau; in situ in G 7530-7540). Also mentioned in tomb of his steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Meretites I

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Wife of Khufu and mother of Kawab (G 7120), Meresankh [II] (G 7410) and Meretites (G 7650). Appeared with her son on west wall of G 7120 chapel room b (tomb of Kawab), three fragments (24-12-1000, 24-12-1002 and possibly 24-12-1122) may belong to this scene; fragments found displaced in G 7120 chapel rooms c and d and space in between.

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.