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Details

  • Format
    Journal Article
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Year Published
    1942
  • Number of Pages
    23
  • Citation Text
    Smith, William Stevenson. "The Origin of Some Unidentified Old Kingdom Reliefs." American Journal of Archaeology 46 (1942), pp. 509-531.
  • Individual - Modern
    (Karl) Richard Lepsius, German, 1810–1884
    Alan Jenvey Rowe, British, 1890–1968
    Ernesto Schiaparelli, Italian, 1856–1928
    François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette, French, 1821–1881
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
    Hermann Junker, German, 1877–1962
    Jean Capart, Belgian, 1877–1947
    Ludwig Borchardt, German, 1863–1938
    Raymond Weill, French, 1874–1950
    Rosalind L. B. Moss
  • Author
    William Stevenson Smith, American, 1907–1969
  • Publisher
    Archaeological Institute of America
  • Individual - Ancient
    Akhi (G 4750)
    Ankhiris (in G 4630)
    Hemiunu (G 4000)
    Medunefer (G 4630)
    Nefer (G 2110)
    Setju (G 4710)
    Tjentet (Tjentet)
    Wehemnefret (Wehemnefret)
    Wenshet (G 4840)

Tombs and Monuments 31

Finds 22

People 20

Ancient People

  • Akhi (G 4750)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4750. Chapel entrance lintel (in fragments: 14-2-13, KHM Vienna ÄS 7801, KHM Vienna ÄS 8542) and drum lintel inscribed for Akhi, identified as [sAb aD-mr (Hrj-)sStA (wr) mDw Sma xrp nstj jmj-r Snwt nswt jmj-r prwj-HD jmj-r sSw aprw jmj-r kAt nb(t) nswt] judge and administrator, secretary, (great one) of the tens of Upper Egypt, director of the two thrones, overseer of royal granaries, overseer of the two treasuries, overseer of scribes of the crews, overseer of all royal works; 14-2-13 found in G 4734 A, KHM Vienna ÄS 7801 and 8542 found in G 4750. Relief fragment (Turin S.1870) inscribed for Akhi, idenitified as [jmj-r Snwt nswt] overseer of royal granaries; excavated by Schiaparelli, exact findspot unknown.
  • Ankhiris (in G 4630)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f smsw] his eldest son) of Medunefer (owner of G 4630). Appears on south false door tablet, standing before his parents Medunefer and Nebuka seated at offering table; south false door (Cairo EMC_JE_36191) dedicated by Ankhiris; found in situ in G 4630. North false door (Cairo EMC_JE_36192) inscribed for Ankhiris (dedicated by his son Medunefer), identified as [sS pr-mDAt nTr smA jnpw xt wr Tntt] scribe of the library of the god, smA-priest of Anubis, khet-priest of the Great One and of Tjentet; found in situ in G 4630. Also appears on false door (north jamb) inscribed for Nensedjerkai (owner of G 4631), identified as [Xrj-Hb smA jnpw xt wr] lector-priest, smA-priest of Anubis, khet-priest of the Great One; in situ in G 4361.
  • Hemiunu (G 4000)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4000. Probable son of Nefermaat (owner of tomb at Meidum), probable grandson of Snefru. Architectural elements, including chapel entrance lintel (Hildesheim 2380) and door jamb (Hildesheim 2146), inscribed for Hemiunu, identified as [jrj-pat HAtj-a xtmw-bjtj] hereditary prince, count, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt; door jamb found in situ in G 4000. Seated statue (Hildesheim 1962) inscribed for Hemiunu, identified as [sA nswt n XT=f tAjtj sAb TAtj wr djw pr-DHwtj] king's son of his body, chief justice and vizier, greatest of the five of the House of Thoth; found in situ in G 4000 serdab behind north niche.
  • Medunefer (G 4630)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4630. South false door (Cairo EMC_JE_36191) inscribed for Medunefer (dedicated by his son Ankhiris), identified as [Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp sS mDAt-nTr smA jnpw] chief lector-priest, scribe of the divine book, smA-priest of Anubis; found in situ in G 4630.
  • Nefer (G 2110)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2110. Appears in chapel relief (south, west, and east walls; not all instances with inscription preserved), identifed as [(sAb) nxt-xrw HqA Hwt jmj-r sSw Xrt-a nswt Hrj-sStA nswt m swt nb sS pr-aA] strong-of-voice (of the judiciary), chief of the estate, overseer of scribes of the portfolios of the king, secretary of the king in all places, scribe of the Great House; in situ in G 2110. Displaced fragments of relief (three unregistered fragments + 36-12-2 = MFA 31.780), upper part of standing figures of Nefer and Wenankhes; originally from G 2110, south wall of chapel (lower part of figures still in situ). Displaced blocks of relief from south door jamb (Louvre B 51) and north door jamb (MFA 07.1002) inscribed for Nefer, identifed as [jmj-r Xkrw nswt nb xrp aprw nfrw jmj-r stj DfAw jmj-r pr-aHAw wr mDw Sma rx nswt jmj-r prwj-HD] overseer of all royal ornaments, director of crews of recruits, overseer of the two places of provisions, overseer of the house of weapons, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, royal acquaintance, overseer of the two treasuries; originally from G 2110, chapel entrance. Displaced false door tablet with crossbar = lower lintel (Museo Barracco 1) inscribed for Nefer, identified as [jmj-r sSw aprw jmj-r pr-HD] overseer of scribes of the crews, overseer of the treasury; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel. Limestone drum lintel (UPM_E13531) inscribed for Nefer, identified as [jmj-r sSw aprw xrp aprw nfrw sS a nswt jmj-r pr-HD] overseer of scribes of the crews, director of crews of recruits, royal document scribe, overseer of the treasury; found reused in G 3015, originally from G 2110, chapel entrance. Limestone reserve head (MFA 06.1886) attributed to Nefer; found in G 2110 A.
  • Setju (G 4710)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4710. Architectural elements, including interior chapel entrance lintel, drum lintel, and door jambs, and false door including upper lintel (tablet = Brooklyn 37.34E, various parts of jambs = Berlin 1125-1127, upper lintel = Berlin 1149) inscribed for Setju; also appears in chapel relief (west wall); identified as [smr watj xrp aH Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt Hrj-wDbw Hwt-anx Hrj-tp nxb (Hrj-tp) DAt] sole companion, director of the palace, secretary of the House of Morning, master of reversion-offerings in the Mansion of Life, chief of Nekheb, supervisor of the wardrobe; found in G 4710.
  • Tjentet (Tjentet)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Tjentet (unnumbered mastaba excavated by Schiaparelli, probably part of mastaba S 984 excavated by Junker). False door (Turin S.1842) and fragment of false door tablet (Turin S.1862) inscribed for Tjentet; found in mastaba of Tjentet. Also appears on false door (Turin S.1840) inscribed for Wehemnefret (owner of Wehemnefret, unnumbered mastaba excavated by Schaiparelli, probably part of mastaba S 984 excavated by Junker), south outer jamb (third register, figure on left, name spelled Tjenteti); found in mastaba of Wehemnefret. Daughter (?) of Wenshet (owner of G 4840). Appears (without family relationship, if any, indicated) on false door (Hildesheim 2971) inscribed for Wenshet, north inner jamb (middle register, name spelled Tjenteti), identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; found in situ in G 4840 (north chapel). Family relationships between Tjentet, Wehemnefret, and Wenshet based on proximity of mastabas and titles.
  • Wehemnefret (Wehemnefret)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Wehemnefret (unnumbered mastaba excavated by Schiaparelli, probably part of mastaba S 984 excavated by Junker). False door (Turin S.1840) inscribed for Wehemnefret, identified as [sAt nswt] king's daughter; found in mastaba of Wehemnefret. Daughter (?) of Wenshet (owner of G 4840). Appears (without family relationship, if any, indicated) on false door (Hildesheim 2971) inscribed for Wenshet, south inner jamb (bottom register), identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; found in situ in G 4840 (north chapel). Family relationship between Wehemnefret and Wenshet based on proximity of mastabas, and titles.
  • Wenshet (G 4840)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4840. False door (Hildesheim 2971) inscribed for Wenshet, identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f Hm-nTr Nt mHtt jnb=s Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt nht] king's daughter of his body, priestess of Neith north of her wall, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore; found in situ in G 4840 (north chapel). Fragment of limestone slab stela (14-2-1 = MFA 14.1183) inscribed for Wenshet; found in G 4832 A, originally from G 4840.

Modern People

  • (Karl) Richard Lepsius

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1810–1884
    • Remarks Egyptologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Alan Jenvey Rowe

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates British, 1890–1968
    • Remarks Egyptologist and archaeologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Ernesto Schiaparelli

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates Italian, 1856–1928
    • Remarks Turin University; Egyptologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates French, 1821–1881
    • Remarks Pasha; Egyptologist; Professor; Archaeologist of Sphinx Temple. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Hermann Junker

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1877–1962
    • Remarks Egyptologist, Director of German-Austrian expedition to Giza, 1911–1929. Published 12 volumes of final excavation reports from Giza expedition. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Jean Capart

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates Belgian, 1877–1947
    • Remarks Belgian Egyptologist. Director of the El-Kab excavations from 1937-9 and then 1945.
  • Ludwig Borchardt

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1863–1938
    • Remarks Egyptologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1863-1938) German Egyptologist; he was bom in Berlin, 5 Oct. 1863, son of Herman B. and Bertha Levin; he trained as an architect at the Technische Hochschule, 1883-7; he assisted in the Egyptian section of Berlin Museum 1887-8; between 1890 and 1897 he was in charge of building works at Konigsberg; Doctor hon. c. 1897; he studied Egyptology under Erman (q.v.) and first visited Egypt in 1895, working at Philae under Capt. Lyons(q.v.); following de Morgan's great project to catalogue the standing monuments of Egypt ,he inaugurated a less grandiose scheme in conjunction with Maspero (q.v.) for the great (Catalogue Général of Cairo Museum; he became attaché to the German Consulate in Cairo; Borchardt founded and directed the German Institute of Archaeology, 1907-28, on his retirement, he founded his own institute which later became the Swiss Institute; he also contributed a great many texts and much useful information to the Berlin Dictionary; using methods partly derived from Dorpfeld he excavated the sun temple of King Nyuserre at Abu Gurab, 1898-1901, and the pyramids of Abusir; he also excavated and established reconstructions of Amarna houses, 1913-14; Borchardt was the first person to make an intensive study of Egyptian architecture as a subject on its own; he also discovered the workshop of the sculptor Thutmose at Amarna and enriched Berlin Museum with many fine objects from this excavation; another interest of his was chronology; he was a member of the German Arch. Institute, 1898, and a bibliography of his writings, 214 nos., was issued in 1933 to celebrate his 70th birthday; he published, Die aegyptischen,.-, Pflanzensaule1897; Denkmaeler des Alten Reiches (ausser den Statuen) im Museum von Kairo, pt. 1, Cat. Gén., 1901; Das Re- Heiligtum des Konigs Ne-woser-re (Rathures), pt. 1, Der Bau, 1905; Zur Baugeschichte des Amonstempels von Karnak, 1905; Nilmesser und Nilstandsmarken, 1906; Das Grabenkmal des Konigs Ne-user-rec , 1907; Works of Art from the Egyptian Museum at Cairo. With explanations by L. Borchardt, 1908; Das Grabenkmal des Koenig Nefer-ir-ke3-rec, 1909; Das Grabdenkmal des Konigs S'a3hu-rec, 3pts, 1910, 1913; Statuen und Statuetten von Koenigen und Privatleuten im Museum von Kairo, Cat. Gén., 1911-36; Die Annalen und die zeitliche Festlegung des Alten Reiches der Aegyptischen Geschichte, 1917; Quellen und Forschungen zur Zeitbestimmung der Aegyptischen Geschichte, 3pts. 1917, 1935, 1938; Die Altaegyptische Zeitmessung 1920; altaegyptische Festungen an der zweiten Nilschnelle, 1923; Portraets der Koenigin Nofret-ete aus den Grabungen 1912/13 in Tell el-Amarna, 1923; Agypten. Landschaft, Volksleben, Baukunst, with H Ricke, 1930; Allerhand Kleinigkeiten ... zu seinem 70. Geburtstage am 3. Oktober 1933, 1933 Beitraege zur Aegyptischen Bauforschung und Altertumskunde, with Ricke, 1937; Die Entstehung des Generalkatalogs und seine Entwicklung in den Jahren 1897-1899, 1937; Aegyptische Tempel mit Umgang, 1938; he died in Paris, 12 Aug. 1938, and was buried in Cairo. ASAE 39 (1939), 43-7 (portr.) U. Leibovitch); Chron. d .Eg. 14 (1939), 141-3 U. Capart) JEA 24 (1938), 248 (G. Steindorff); NDB 2, 455 (H. Ricke).
  • Raymond Weill

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates French, 1874–1950
    • Remarks French Egyptologist.
  • Rosalind L. B. Moss

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates
  • William Stevenson Smith

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1907–1969
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Curator, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.

Institutions 1