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  • Tomb Owner
  • Excavator
    (Karl) Richard Lepsius, German, 1810–1884
    Giovanni Battista Belzoni, Italian, 1778 –1823
    Giovanni Battista Caviglia, Italian, 1770–1845
  • Lepsius No
    Lepsius IV
  • Other No
    1 of Giza (Perring and Vyse)
    Great Pyramid
    First Pyramid
  • Alternate Reisner No
    G I
  • PorterMoss Date
    Dynasty 4
  • Remarks
    Khufu pyramid includes an enclosure wall.

Finds 7

Excavation Diary Pages 34

Maps & Plans 9

Drawings 3

Published Documents 26

Unpublished Documents 12

Full Bibliography

  • Badawy, Alexander M. "The Periodic System of Building a Pyramid." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 63 (1977), pp. 52-54, 58.

    Bauval, Robert G. "The Horizon of Khufu." Discussions in Egyptology 30 (1994), pp. 17-20.

    Bauval, Robert G. "The Star-Shafts of Cheops's Pyramid." Discussions in Egyptology 29 (1994), pp. 23-28.

    Bauval, Robert G. & A.G. Gilbert. "The Adze of Upuaut." Discussions in Egyptology 28 (1994), pp. 5-9, 11-12, figs. 1-3.

    Bauval, Robert G. "Cheops's Pyramid: A New Dating Using the Latest Astronomical Data." Discussions in Egyptology 26 (1993), pp. 5-6.

    Becker, Jürgen. "Die Chephren-Pyramide. Planänderung des Baukörpers und ihre Auswirkung auf das Kammersystem." Sokar 8 (1. Halbjahr 2004), pp. 7-11, 14-17, notes 10, 19, 51.

    Bothmer, Bernard V. Egypt 1950: My First Visit. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2003, p. 148.

    Cook, R.J. "The Stellar Geometry of the Great Pyramid." Discussions in Egyptology 29 (1994), pp. 29-36.

    Cwiek, Andrzej. Relief Decoration in the Royal Funerary Complexes of the Old Kingdom: Studies in the Development, Scene Content and Iconography. Warsaw: Institute of Archaeology, Faculty of History, Warsaw University, 2003, pp. 93-95, 98.

    Dorner, Josef. "Das Basisviereck der Cheopspyramide." In Peter Janosi, ed. Structure and Significance: Thoughts on Ancient Egyptian Architecture, Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2005, pp. 275-281.

    Edwards, I.E.S. "The Air-Channels of Chephren's Pyramid." In William Kelly Simpson and Whitney M. Davis, eds. Studies in Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, and the Sudan: Essays in Honor of Dows Dunham on the Occasion of his 90th Birthday, June 1, 1980. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1981, pp. 55-57.

    Flentye, Laurel. "The Mastabas of Ankh-haf (G 7510) and Akhethetep and Meretites (G 7650) in the Eastern Cemetery at Giza: A Reassessment." In Zahi Hawass and Janet Richards, eds. The Archaeology and Art of Ancient Egypt. Essays in Honor of David B. O'Connor, Vol. I. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte, Cahier no. 36. Cairo: Supreme Council of Antiquities, 2007, pp. 293, 300, 302, 303.

    Flentye, Laurel. "The Development of Art in the Fourth Dynasty: The Eastern and GIS Cemeteries at Giza." In Mamdouh Eldmaty and Mai Trad, eds. Egyptian Museum Collections Around the World: Studies for the Centennial of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Cairo: Supreme Council of Antiquities, 2002, pp. 385-386.

    Haase, Michael. "Das 'Giza Archiv-Projekt.' Interview mit Peter Der Manuelian." Sokar 10 (2005), p. 10.

    Haase, Michael. "Der Serviceschacht der Cheops-Pyramide. Bemerkungen zur Konstruktion des Verbindungsschachtes zwischen Großer Galerie und absteigendem Korridor." Sokar 9 (2. Halbjahr 2004), pp. 12-17.

    Haase, Michael. "Brennpunkt Giza. Die Schachtsysteme der Cheops-Pyramide." Sokar 5 (2. Halbjahr 2002), pp. 3-13.

    Hanna, Hany. "Cheops Wooden Boat and its Museum; Condition Case Study." In Hany Hanna, ed. ICOM-CC-Wood, Furniture and Lacquer. International Conference on Heritage of Naqada and Qus Region. Monastery of the Archangel Michael, Naqada, Egypt. 22-28 January 2007. Preprints 1. Egypt: International Council of Museums & Diocese of Naqada and Qus, 2007, pp. 183-186.

    Hawass, Zahi. "Excavating the Old Kingdom. The Egyptian Archaeologists." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, pp. 155, 157, 159.

    Hawass, Zahi. "Pyramid Construction. New Evidence Discovered at Giza." In Heike Guksch and Daniel Polz, eds. Stationen. Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Ägyptens Rainer Stadelmann gewidmet, Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1998, pp. 53–59, figs. 5, 6.

    Hawass, Zahi. "The Discovery of the Harbors of Khufu and Khafre at Gîza." In Catherine Berger and Bernard Mathieu, eds. Études sur l'Ancien Empire et la nécropole de Saqqâra dédiées à Jean-Philippe Lauer. Orientalia Monspeliensia IX. Montpellier: Université Paul Valéry, 1997, pp. 250-251, figs. 1, 2.

    Hawass, Zahi. "Zahi Hawass talks to KMT about matters on the Giza Plateau (Interview)." KMT 8, no. 2 (Summer 1997), pp. 19-21, 24.

    Hawass, Zahi. "The Great Sphinx at Giza: Date and Function." In Gian Maria Zaccone and Tomaso Ricardi di Netro (eds.) Sesto Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia. Atti, Volume II. Turin, 1993, pp. 178, 181, 183, 185-188.

    Hawass, Zahi. "A Burial with an Unusual Plaster Mask in the Western Cemetery of Khufu's Pyramid." In Renée Friedman and Barbara Adams, eds. The Followers of Horus. Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman 1944-1990. Egyptian Studies Association Publication No. 2. Oxbow Monograph 20. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1992, pp. 327-328.

    Hawass, Zahi. "The Khufu Statuette: Is it an Old Kingdom Sculpture?" In Paule Posener-Kriéger, ed. Mélanges Gamal Eddin Mokhtar, vol. I. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1985, pp. 383, 388-391.

    Heick-Hansen, Bent. "The Sphinx temple." In Gian Maria Zaccone and Tomaso Ricardi di Netro (eds.) Sesto Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia. Atti, Volume I. Turin, 1993, pp. 243-245, figs. 9, 10.

    Hellestam, Sigvard. "The Pyramid of Cheops as Calendar." Discussions in Egyptology 28 (1994), pp. 21, 23-25.

    Hery, François-Xavier. "L'"inachevé" à la salle souterraine de la pyramide de Kheops." Sesto Congresso Internazionale di Egittologia. Atti, Volume I. Turin, 1993, pp. 259, 261-263, figs. 1-3.

    Jánosi, Peter. "Bemerkungen zur Entstehung, Lage und Datierung der Nekropolenfelder von Giza unter Cheops." Sokar 4 (1. Halbjahr 2002), pp. 4-9.

    Lehner, Mark. "Giza. A Contextual Approach to the Pyramids." Archiv für Orientforschung 32 (1985), pp. 141-143, 145, 147-153, 155-156, 158, figs. 6a-b, 7.

    Lehner, Mark. "The Development of the Giza Necropolis. The Khufu Project." Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo 41 (1985), pp. 109-143.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Excavating the Old Kingdom. The Giza Necropolis and Other Mastaba Fields." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, pp. 138-140, 142, 144, 146-148, 150, 152, note 5, figs. 79, 80, 87, 88, 90, unnumbered fig.

    Münch, Hans-Hubertus, "Categorizing Archaeological Finds: the Funerary Material of Queen Hetepheres I at Giza." Antiquity 74, No 286 (2000), pp. 898-899, 906.

    el-Naggar, Salah. "Les couvrements de granit dans les pyramides de Giza." In Peter Janosi, ed. Structure and Significance: Thoughts on Ancient Egyptian Architecture, Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2005, pp. 429-432, 434, fig. 1.

    Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 11-16.

    Quibell, A.A. The Pyramids of Giza. Cairo: C.M.S. Bookshop, undated, pp. 8, 10, 12, 15-18, 24, unnumbered figs.

    Rowe, Alan. "Studies in the Archaeology of the Near East II: Some Facts Concerning the Gread Pyramids of el-Gîza and Their Royal Constructors." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 44, No. 1 (September 1961), pp. 103, 105, 107, 109-110, 114-115.

    Sakovich, Anthony P. "Explaining the Shafts in Khufu's Pyramid at Giza." Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 42 (2005-6), pp. 1-12, figs. 2-4.

    Scharff, Alexander. "On the Statuary of the Old Kingdom." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 26 (1941), p. 43.

    Thomas, Elizabeth. "Air Channels in the Great Pyramid." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 39 (1953), p. 113.

    Wainwright, G.A. "Review of 'Einige zur dritten Bauperiode der grossen Pyramide bei Gise'." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 23 (1937), pp. 127-129.

3D Models 1

Videos 10

People 4

Ancient People

  • Khufu

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.

Modern People

  • (Karl) Richard Lepsius

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1810–1884
    • Remarks Egyptologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Giovanni Battista Belzoni

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates Italian, 1778 –1823
    • Remarks Belzoni was a circus strongman, Italian adventurer, and self-taught archaeologist.
  • Giovanni Battista Caviglia

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates Italian, 1770–1845
    • Remarks Caviglia was an early explorer of the Great Pyramid and the Sphinx.