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Details

  • Format
    Journal Article
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Year Published
    1985
  • Number of Pages
    23
  • Citation Text
    Lehner, Mark. "Giza. A Contextual Approach to the Pyramids." Archiv für Orientforschung 32 (1985), pp. 136-158.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Babaef (G 8260)
    Debehen (G 8090)
    Djedefre
    Iuenre (G 8466)
    Khafre
    Khentkaus [I] (G 8400)
    Khufu
    Menkaure
    Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)
    Niuserre (G 8140)
    Persenet (G 8156)
    Sekhemkare (G 8154)
  • Author
    Mark Lehner, American
  • Publisher
    Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Söhne Gesellschaft M.B.H.

Tombs and Monuments 7

People 13

Ancient People

  • Babaef (G 8260)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
  • Debehen (G 8090)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8090. Chapel entrance architrave, drum and door reveals inscribed for Debehen, identified as [smr watj jmj-jb nb=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt jrj nfr-HAt sXkr Hr Hrj-wDbw m Hwt-anx xrp aH aD-mr Hr sbAw xntj pt jmj-r swt Spswt nt pr-aA mrjj nb=f] sole companion, who is in the heart of his lord, chief lector-priest, secretary of the House of Morning, keeper of the headdress, adorner of Horus, master of reversions-offerings in the Mansion of Life, director of the palace, administrator of the district 'Star-of-Horus-Foremost-of-Heaven', overseer of august places of the Great House, beloved of his lord; in situ in G 8090. Appears in chapel relief (seated on north wall), identified as [smr jr mrrt nb=f] companion, one who does what his lord loves; in situ in G 8090. Eastern jamb of entrance to second (northern) room inscribed for Debehen, identified as [Hrj-tp nxb] overlord of El-Kab; in situ in G 8090. Southern wall of second room inscribed for Debehen, identified as [nswt ... jmj-jb n nTr=f mrr nb=f mrj...] royal ..., who is in the heart of his god, beloved of his lord, who is beloved...; first half in situ in G 8090, second on slab found displaced in debris of second room. A number of fragmentary limestone slabs are inscribed with the name and titles of Debehen, identified as [(Hrj-sS)tA n nswt smr n jb nb=f] royal (secretary), companion and favorite of his lord; found displaced in debris of second room, probably originally from northern wall of second room. Poorly preserved false door inscribed for Debehen; in situ in western wall of second room of G 8090.
  • Djedefre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 4. Son (?) of Khufu.
  • Iuenre (G 8466)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Khafre
  • Khafre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khentkaus [I] (G 8400)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8400. Possible daughter of Menkaure. Chapel entrance door jambs and fragments of false door inscribed for Khentkaus, identified as [mwt nswt-bjtj nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] mother of the two kings of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god; in situ in G 8400. Alternately the titles may read [nswt-bjtj mwt nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] king of Upper and Lower Egypt, mother of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god.
  • Khufu

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8172 (Lepsius 86) and Lepsius 12. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Fragmentary entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Nebemakhet, identified as [sS mDAt(-nTr) smsw snwt n jt=f tAjtj sAb TAtj jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xt wr xt (?)] scribe of the (divine) book, elder of the snwt-house of his father, chief justice and vizier, hereditary prince, king's son of his body, chief lector-priest, khet-priest of the Great One, khet-priest of (?); found fallen in debris in front of entrance of G 8172. Originally appeared in chapel relief seated with his sister (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sS mDAt-nTr n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] scribe of the divine book of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in G 8172. Appears with his mother and sister above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [smr watj] sole companion, and with his wife on same wall, identified as [Hrj-sStA n jt=f] secretary of his father; in situ in G 8172. Originally appeared with his wife (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel; in situ in G 8172. Nebemakhet's name and titles also appear on fragments of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. Also entrance architrave, drum and jambs (very poorly preserved) originally inscribed for Nebemakhet (name partially preserved on northern door jamb), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f smr watj] hereditary prince, king's son of his body, sole companion; in situ in Lepsius 12. Also attested (main room, west wall) in tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540), and on back pillar (MFA 30.1457a) of fragmentary limestone statue of her; found in debris of forecourt of G 7530-7540.
  • Niuserre (G 8140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8140. Entrance drum and left-hand door reveal inscribed for Niuserre, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp n it=f xtmw-bjtj smr watj r p nb] king's son of his body, chief lector-priest of his father, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt, sole companion, mouth of every Butite; in situ in G 8140. Brother (?) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Name and title (both incompletely preserved) appear on fragment of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel, identified as [(sA nswt) n Xt=f] (king's son) of his body; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. May be same individual as Niuserreankh (in G 7530-7540).
  • Persenet (G 8156)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Khafre
  • Sekhemkare (G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8154 (Lepsius 89). Entrance door jambs, right-hand reveal and drum inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj-pat hAtj-a jmj js xtmw-bjtj Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp n jt=f smr watj Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt aA dwAw Hrj-sStA n jt=f] king's son of his body, hereditary prince, count, councillor, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt, chief lector-priest of his father, sole companion, secretary of the House of Morning, assistant of (the god) Duau, secretary of his father; in situ in G 8154. Appears seated with his mother on western wall and seated with his wife on eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [tAjtj sAb TAtj] chief justice and vizier; in situ in G 8154. Also appears seated with his mother on eastern wall of room a-2, identified as [xrp aH] director of the palace; in situ in G 8154. Western wall of room a-2 inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xrp sSw mDAt nt (jt=f) smr watj n jt=f wt jnpw] chief lector-priest, director of scribes of the documents of (his father), sole companion of his father, embalmer of Anubis; in situ in G 8154. Northern wall of room a-2 inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [jmAx xr jt=f nswt xr nTr aA xr nswt-bjtj xafra xr nswt-bjtj mnkAwra xr nswt-bjtj SpsskAf xr nswt-bjtj wsrkAf xr nswt-bjtj sAHwra] revered before his father the king, before the Great God, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Khafre, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Menkaure, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Shepseskaf, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Userkaf, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Sahure; in situ in G 8154.

Modern People

  • Mark Lehner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American
    • Remarks Director of Ancient Egypt Research Associates (AERA) and Giza Plateau Mapping Project (GPMP).

Institutions 1