Skip to main content
This site is under construction. Thank you for your patience.

Details

  • Tomb Owner
    Penmeru (G 2197)
  • Attested
    Demedj (in G 2197)
    Meretites (in G 2197)
    Neferhetep (in G 2197)
    Neferseshemes (in G 2197)
    Seshemnefer (in G 2197)
    Seshemnefer (in G 2197)
  • Excavator
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
  • Baer Date
    End of Dynasty 5
  • PorterMoss Date
    End of Dynasty 5
  • Grdseloff Date
    End of the reign of Djedkare
  • Harpur Date
    Unis
  • Reisner Date
    Latter part of Dynasty 5
  • Site Type
    Stone-built mastaba
  • Shafts
    G 2197 Serdab; G 2197 A; G 2197 B; G 2197 C; G 2197 D; G 2197 U; G 2197 W; G 2197 X; G 2197 Y; G 2197 Z

Finds 14

Excavation Diary Pages 24

Maps & Plans 14

Drawings 2

Published Documents 13

Unpublished Documents 35

Full Bibliography

  • Dunham, Dows. The Egyptian Department and its Excavations. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1958, p. 45.

    Eaton-Krauss, Marianne. "The Striding Statue of Pehenptah (JE 44609)." In Mamdouh Eldmaty and Mai Trad, eds. Egyptian Museum Collections Around the World: Studies for the Centennial of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Cairo: Supreme Council of Antiquities, 2002, p. 311.

    Eaton-Krauss, Marianne. "Pseudo-Groups." In Rainer Stadelmann and Hourig Sourouzian, eds. Kunst des Alten Reiches: Symposium im Deutschen Archäologischen Institut Kairo am 29. und 30. Oktober 1991. Sonderschrift des Deutschen Archäologischen Institut Abteilung Kairo 28, Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1995, pp. 66, 68, 73.

    Fisher, Clarence S. "The Harvard University -- Museum of Fine Arts Egyptian Expedition." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 11, No. 62 (April 1913), pp. 19-21, unnumbered figs.

    Gamer-Wallert, Ingrid."Die bewegte Geschichte der Mastaba Seschemnofers III. (G 5170)." Sokar 9 (2. Halbjahr, 2004), p. 32.

    García, Juan Carlos Moreno. "A New Old Kingdom Inscription from Giza (CGC 57163), and the Problem of sn-Dt in Pharaonic Third Millennium Society." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 93 (2007), p. 126.

    Goedicke, Die privaten Rechtsinchriften aus dem Alten Reich, 68-74, pl. 6

    Grdseloff, ASAE 42 (1943), 39-43, fig. 3.

    Lehmann, Katja. Der Serdab in den Privatgräbern des Alten Reiches 1-3. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universität Heidelberg, 2000, Kat. G121.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Penmeru Revisited–Giza Mastaba G 2197 (Giza Archives Gleanings V)." Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 45 (2009), pp. 3-48, figs. 1-54.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Eight Years at the Giza Archives Project: Past Experiences and Future Plans for the Giza Digital Archive." Egyptian and Egyptological Documents, Archives, and Libraries, An Annual 1 (Milan, 2009), p. 151, note 8. 

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Excavating the Old Kingdom. The Giza Necropolis and Other Mastaba Fields." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, p. 149.

    Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 82-3.

    Reisner, George A. A History of the Giza Necropolis 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1942, p. 292 [2].

    Reisner, George A., and Clarence S. Fisher. "Preliminary Report on the Work of the Harvard-Boston Expedition in 1911-13." Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Egypte 13 (1914), p. 247, pl. 11 [a].

    Simpson, William Kelly. Mastabas of the Western Cemetery, Part 1: Sekhemka (G 1029); Tjetu I (G 2001); Iasen (G 2196); Penmeru (G 2197); Hagy, Nefertjentet, and Herunefer (G 2352/53); Djaty, Tjetu II, and Nimesti (G 2337X, 2343, 2366). Giza Mastabas 4. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1980, pp. vii, 16, 24-27, pls. XLVI-LII, figs. 27, 39.

    Smith, William Stevenson. Ancient Egypt as Represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1960 (6th ed.), p. 53.

Photos 127

People 8

Ancient People

  • Demedj (in G 2197)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Name appears on fragment of relief (35-10-24) depicting man carrying hyena; found in G 2197 U, chamber.
  • Meretites (in G 2197)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Penmeru (owner of G 2197). Testamentary decree of Penmeru (south wall of niche) provides for offerings to be made for Meretites, identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 2197. Limestone pseudo-group statue (MFA 12.1484) depicting two figures of Penmeru, his wife Meretites, his son Seshemnefer, and his daughter Neferseshemes; Meretites identified as [mjtrt] mitret; found in situ in G 2197 serdab.
  • Neferhetep (in G 2197)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Mentioned (without family relationship, if any, indicated) in testamentary decree in tomb of Penmeru (owner of G 2197), south wall of niche, identified as [sn-Dt Hm-kA] brother of the funerary estate, ka-priest; in situ in G 2197.
  • Neferseshemes (in G 2197)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Daughter ([sAt=f] his daughter) of Penmeru (owner of G 2197). Limestone pseudo-group statue (MFA 12.1484) depicting two figures of Penmeru, his wife Meretites, his son Seshemnefer, and his daughter Neferseshemes; found in situ in G 2197 serdab.
  • Penmeru (G 2197)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Owner of G 2197. Testamentary decree of Penmeru (south wall of niche), identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr mnkAwra jmj-r Hmw-kA] royal wab-priest, priest of Menkaure, overseer of ka-priests; in situ in G 2197. Limestone triad (MFA 12.1504) representing Penmeru in three Ka forms, identified as [rx nswt xrp sH] royal acquaintance, director of the dining hall; limestone pseudo-group statue (MFA 12.1484) depicting two figures of Penmeru, his wife Meretites, his son Seshemnefer, and his daughter Neferseshemes; Penmeru identified as [sHD Hmw-kA rx nswt xrp sH] inspector of ka-priests, royal acquaintance, director of the dining hall; limestone standing pair statue (Cairo JE 43753) depicting two figures of Penmeru; statues found in situ in G 2197 serdab.
  • Seshemnefer (in G 2197)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Penmeru (owner of G 2197). Limestone pseudo-group statue (MFA 12.1484) depicting two figures of Penmeru, his wife Meretites, his son Seshemnefer, and his daughter Neferseshemes; found in situ in G 2197 serdab.
  • Seshemnefer (in G 2197)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Mentioned in testamentary decree in tomb of Penmeru (owner of G 2197), south wall of niche, identified as [TAtj Tatj sAb] chief justice, vizier; in situ in G 2197. Possibly to be identified as Seshemnefer [III] (owner of G 5170); not to be confused with Seshemnefer (son of Permeru).

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.