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Limestone triad of Penmeru, representing Penmeru in three Ka forms; left head without headdress, center head with large wig, each figure in traditional pose with clenched fist and left leg advanced, figures wear short kilts to above knees with loop fastened belt, inscriptions at feet of each figure; head of right figure missing, color remaining in parts.


  • ID
  • Department
    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  • Classification
  • Findspot
    Mastaba G 2197, serdab
  • Material
  • Dimensions
    Height x width x depth: 120 x 117 x 40 cm (47 1/4 x 46 1/16 x 15 3/4 in.)
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Object Ownership Information
  • Period
    Old Kingdom, Dynasty 5
  • Owner
    Penmeru (G 2197)
  • Notes
    This object was excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition, but was not recorded in any object register book. 1912: Excavated by the Harvard University–Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; 1912: assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of Egypt. (Accession Date: December 5, 1912)

Tombs and Monuments 1

  • G 2197

    • Site Name Western Cemetery

Published Documents 8

Full Bibliography

  • Aldred, Cyril. Le Temps des Pyramides: de la Préhistoire aux Hyksos, 1560 Av. J.-C. Le Monde Égyptien. L'univers des Formes 26. Paris: Gallimard, 1978, p. 289, fig. 198.

    Brovarski, Edward. "A Triad for Pehenptah." Warsaw Egyptological Studies I. Essays in honour of Prof. Dr. Jadwiga Lipinska. Warsaw: National Museum "Pro-Egipt," 1997, p. 270, note 32.

    Eaton-Krauss, Marianne. "Pseudo-Groups." In Rainer Stadelmann and Hourig Sourouzian, eds. Kunst des Alten Reiches: Symposium im Deutschen Archäologischen Institut Kairo am 29. und 30. Oktober 1991. Sonderschrift des Deutschen Archäologischen Institut Abteilung Kairo 28, Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1995, p. 72, #24.

    Fisher, Clarence S. "The Harvard-University-Museum of Fine Arts Egyptian Expedition." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 11, No. 62 (1913), p. 21.

    Goedicke, Hans. Die Privaten Rechtsinschriften aus dem Alten Reich. Beihefte zur Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 5. Wien: Verlag Notring, 1970, p. 68.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Penmeru Revisited–Giza Mastaba G 2197 (Giza Archives Gleanings V)." Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 45 (2009), pp. 5, 15, 16, 32-37, figs. 8-12, 18, 28-36.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Eight Years at the Giza Archives Project: Past Experiences and Future Plans for the Giza Digital Archive." Egyptian and Egyptological Documents, Archives, and Libraries, An Annual 1 (Milan, 2009), p. 151, note 8. 

    Simpson, William Kelly. Mastabas of the Western Cemetery, Part 1: Sekhemka (G 1029); Tjetu I (G 2001); Iasen (G 2196); Penmeru (G 2197); Hagy, Nefertjentet, and Herunefer (G 2352/53); Djaty, Tjetu II, and Nimesti (G 2337X, 2343, 2366). Giza Mastabas 4. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1980, pp. 25-6, pl. L.

    Smith, William Stevenson. Ancient Egypt as Represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1960 (6th ed.), pp. 53-54.

People 1

Ancient People

  • Penmeru (G 2197)

    • Type Owner
    • Remarks Owner of G 2197. Testamentary decree of Penmeru (south wall of niche), identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr mnkAwra jmj-r Hmw-kA] royal wab-priest, priest of Menkaure, overseer of ka-priests; in situ in G 2197. Limestone triad (MFA 12.1504) representing Penmeru in three Ka forms, identified as [rx nswt xrp sH] royal acquaintance, director of the dining hall; limestone pseudo-group statue (MFA 12.1484) depicting two figures of Penmeru, his wife Meretites, his son Seshemnefer, and his daughter Neferseshemes; Penmeru identified as [sHD Hmw-kA rx nswt xrp sH] inspector of ka-priests, royal acquaintance, director of the dining hall; limestone standing pair statue (Cairo JE 43753) depicting two figures of Penmeru; statues found in situ in G 2197 serdab.