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*Original paper documents for Chapter 9 are in archival boxes K01 and K02 in the Egyptian Section archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Details

  • Classification
    Documentation-Unpublished manuscripts
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Date
    about 1934–1942
  • Mentioned on page
    Henry Frederick Lutz, American, 1886–1973
    Selim Hassan (Bey), Egyptian, 1886–1961
    William Stevenson Smith, American, 1907–1969
    Idu (G 7102)
    Inkaf (in G 1022)
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Mersuankh (G 8990)
    Penmeru (G 2197)
    Qar (G 7101)
    Rawer (G 8988)
  • Author
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942

Tombs and Monuments 7

  • G 1032

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2197

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 7101

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 7102

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 7530-7540

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 8988

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8990

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)

Photos 1

People 11

Ancient People

  • Idu (G 7102)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7102. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, statuary), identified variously as [jmj-r Hwt wrt jmj-r sSw mrt xntj-S mnnfr-ppj Xrj tp nswt] overseer of the great chapel, overseer of scribes of the meret-serfs, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Pepi, he who is at the head of the king; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Idu (in G 7101), son of Qar (owner of G 7101). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.
  • Inkaf (in G 1022)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Son ([sA smsw] eldest son) of Hetepib (probable owner of G 1022). Limestone standing pair statue (two figures representing same man) (Hearst 6-19782) inscribed for Inkaf, identified as [jmj-r wabt sHD wabt rx nswt] overseer of the wabet, inspector of the wabet, royal acquaintance; found in space between G 1022 and G 1025 (corridor chapel of G 1022), attributed to G 1022. Limestone offering basin (Hearst 6-19761) inscribed for Hetepib, dedicated by his son Inkaf, identified as [jmj-r mDw Hmwtjw wabt] overseer of ten craftsmen of the wabet; found displaced in G 1032, attributed to G 1022. Both attributed to G 1032 with name incorrectly spelled Iunkaf in Porter-Moss III, p. 54. Pair statue of Hetepib and Setepet (Hearst 6-19781) and pair statue of Inkaf (Hearst 6-19782) found E of G 1022 (between G 1022 and G 1025) (in situ: A10828_OS – A10832_OS, C10240_OS – C10243_OS, C10591_OS, C13270-01A_OS). Offering basin inscribed for Hetepib, dedicated by his son Inkaf (Hearst 6-19761) found in disturbed context at S end of G 1032 (in situ: C10244_OS, C10245_OS, C133056-01_OS; this would appear to be pit A, see cemetery area plan EG000500). Reisner originally (tentatively) attributed the offering basin to G 1022 (GN2_K01_ChapIX_p083), probably based on the findspot of the two pair statues. Reisner later revised his opinion and attributed the two pair statues to G 1032 (GN3_L04_p062), despite the fact that G 1022 is the primary mastaba with G 1032 built (abutting N end of G 1022) at a later date, that the statues were found in "the debris of the chapel of G 1022" (GN3_L03_p023, GN3_L04_p006), and that the offering basin was not in situ in G 1032. It seems more likely that all of the inscribed material (statues, offering basin) originated in G 1022 chapel.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Mersuankh (G 8990)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8990. Chapel lintel, door jambs and reveals inscribed for Mersuankh, identified as [jmj-r jdw n Xnw sHD Hmw-kA nfr] overseer of young men of the Residence, inspector of ka-priests, cadet; in situ in G 8990. False door inscribed for Mersuankh, identified as [Dt smr rawr jmj-r jdw n Xnw jmj-r jSt=f nbt n Xnw nt rwt] djet-priest of the companion Rawer, overseer of young men of the Residence, overseer of all his (Rawer's) possessions of the Residence and the exterior; in situ in G 8990. Four limestone offering tables inscribed for Mersuankh; in situ before false door. Also appears on false door of his mother Rudjsaus, and in wall reliefs and statuary (JE 66617-66620) from serdabs and shafts; in situ in G 8990.
  • Penmeru (G 2197)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 2197. Testamentary decree of Penmeru (south wall of niche), identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr mnkAwra jmj-r Hmw-kA] royal wab-priest, priest of Menkaure, overseer of ka-priests; in situ in G 2197. Limestone triad (MFA 12.1504) representing Penmeru in three Ka forms, identified as [rx nswt xrp sH] royal acquaintance, director of the dining hall; limestone pseudo-group statue (MFA 12.1484) depicting two figures of Penmeru, his wife Meretites, his son Seshemnefer, and his daughter Neferseshemes; Penmeru identified as [sHD Hmw-kA rx nswt xrp sH] inspector of ka-priests, royal acquaintance, director of the dining hall; limestone standing pair statue (Cairo JE 43753) depicting two figures of Penmeru; statues found in situ in G 2197 serdab.
  • Qar (G 7101)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7101. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, pillar), identified variously as [jmj-r kAt nbt xntj-S mnnfr-mrjjra Xrj tp nswt sS a nswt xft-Hr mAa] overseer of all works, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Meryre (Pepi I), he who is at the head of the king, true royal document scribe in the presence; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Qar (in G 7102), son of Idu (owner of G 7102). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.
  • Rawer (G 8988)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8988. Son of Itisen and Hetepheres. Entrance architrave, lintel and facade inscribed for Rawer, identified as [smr watj Hrj-tp nxb Hm-nTr Hr-jnpw xntj pr Smswt watj aD-mr Hr sbA xntj pt sm xrp SnDt xt mnw xrp aH Hrj-sStA n pr(-dwAt) Xrj-Hb wa m wrw Hb xrp Hwwt nt mw aD-mr dp Hm-nTr wADt jrj nfr-HAt] sole companion, chief of Nekheb, priest of Horus-Anubis who presides solely over the suite, administrator of the district 'Star-of-Horus-Foremost-of-Heaven', sem-priest, director of the kilt, khet-priest of Min, director of the palace, secretary of the House (of Morning), lector-priest, sole one of the great ones of the festival, director of mansions of mu-textiles(?), administrator of Dep, priest of Wadjet, keeper of the diadem; facade in situ, lintel and architrave fallen in front of entrance to G 8988. Inner door jambs inscribed for Rawer, identified as [jmj-r Xkrw nswt n jswj overseer of the king's ornaments in the two chambers; in situ in G 8988. Inscription along top of eastern wall of serdab 14 with titles [Hm-nTr nxbt Hm-ntr wADt smr watj n(j) mrwt] priest of Nekhbet, priest of Wadjet, sole companion, possessor of love; in situ in G 8988. Rawer appears on alabaster panel (JE 66626) in niche 14, identified as [Hrj-sStA n mdw-nTr] secretary of the sacred writings; in situ in G 8988. Inscribed limestone slab with title [Hm-nTr wADt p dp] priest of Wadjet in Pe and Dep; found displaced in G 8988. Inscribed limestone slab with title [jmj-r wabt] overseer of the wabet; found fallen from wall of first chamber of eastern passage in G 8988. Life-size limestone statue of Rawer, inscribed [jrj nfr-HAt (smsw?) wxrt aAt jr Sn nswt] keeper of the diadem, (elder?) of the great shipyard, royal hairdresser; found in back of second chamber of eastern passage in G 8988. Life-size limestone statue of Rawer, inscribed [jmj-jb n nb=f Hrj-sStA n nswt] he who is in the heart of his lord, secretary of the king; found in situ in serdab 12 of G 8988, along with limestone relief of biographical inscription (JE 66682). A large number of other inscribed statues and fragments of Rawer and his family found throughout G 8988 (including JE 66615, a quartzite "pseudo-group" statue of Rawer, and JE 66625, a limestone statue head of Rawer).

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Henry Frederick Lutz

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1886–1973
  • Selim Hassan (Bey)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates Egyptian, 1886–1961
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Sub Director General. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1886-1961) Egyptian Egyptologist; born Mit-Nagi, 15 April 1886, he studied at the Higher Teacher's College, Cairo under Kamal (q.v.); in 1912 he became a teacher and in 1921 obtained a post in the Egyptian Museum as assistant keeper; he studied in Paris 1923-7 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes; he was the first Egyptian to be appointed as a Professor of Egyptology in the Universitv of Cairo, 1928 - 36; he was later made Deputy Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service responsible for the care of all monuments in the Nile valley, 1936-39; Ph.D. Vienna University, 1935; stimulated by the archaeological work of P. E. Newberry (q.v.) and Junker (q.v.)he began an active career in excavations with the clearance of some of the Giza mastabas in 1929; the excavations carried on by him in this necropolis continued until 1939 by which time a great deal of digging had been achieved, published in 10 parts; he also cleared the Sphinx and its temple, for the first time completely digging out the great amphitheatre around it and ensuring that it would not be buried by send again so easily; he wrote a study on this work and on the temple of Amenhotep II here; in addition the so-called Fourth Pyramid or the palace-façade tomb of Queen Khent-kawes of the Fourth Dynasty was investigated and also the funerary town of the priests associated with it; he later worked on the Unas causeway at Saqqara and at the valley temple of this king, discovering some of the mastabas in this area and two great subterranean tombs dated to the Second Dynasty; his final excavations at Giza were carried out on the east and south faces of the Great Pyramid and at the mortuary temple of King Khufu, 1938-9; he also took part in the campaign to save the monments of Nubia, and wrote a report on this subject; he published about 53 books and articles on Egyptological subjects in English, French, and Arabic, Hymnes religieux du Moyen Empire, 1928; Le Poème dit de Pentaour et Le rapport officiel sur la bataiILe de Qadesh , 1929; Excavations at Giza, 10 pts., 1929-60; The Sphinx. Its History in the Light of recent Excavations, 1949; Report on the Monunents of Nubia,1955Excavations at Saqqara 1937-8, 3 vols., 1975; in Arabic Literature of Ancient Egpt, 2 vols.; Ancient Egypt from Prehistoric Times to the Age of Rameses 11, 6 vols.; he died in Giza, 30 Sept. 1961. AfO 20 (1963), 310 (H. Brunner); Archaeology 14, no, 4 (1961, 293; ASAE 58 (1964), 61- 84 (bibl.) (Dia Abou-Ghazi); Orientalia 31 (1962), 271; Goettinger Miszellen 76 (1984), 78-80; Reid, JAOS 105 (1985), 237, 241-44.
  • William Stevenson Smith

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1907–1969
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Curator, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.