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Details

  • Tomb Owner
    Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)
  • Excavator
    (Karl) Richard Lepsius, German, 1810–1884
    Selim Hassan (Bey), Egyptian, 1886–1961
  • Attested
    Ankhemre(?) (in G 8172)
    Duaenre(?) (in G 8172)
    Inkaf (in G 8172)
    Iskha (in G 8172)
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Niuserre (G 8140)
    Nubhetep (in G 8172)
    Semerka (in G 8172)
    Shepsetkau (in G 8172)
  • Lepsius No
    L.86
    LG 86
    Lepsius 86
  • Abou-Ghazi No (ASAE 58 [1964])
    74
  • Hassan No.
    Neb-em-akhet
  • PorterMoss Date
    Khafre to Menkaure or later
  • Site Type
    Rock-cut tomb
  • Shafts
    S 782; S 783; S 784; inner chapel; outer chapel
  • Remarks
    Rock-cut mastaba along western edge of Central Field, north of G 8158 (Lepsius 87), northeast of G 8166 (Lepsius 86-x) and southwest of G 8174 ( Lepsius 85-z). Excavated in 1932-1933 by Hassan.

Finds 3

Excavation Diary Pages 1

Maps & Plans 4

Drawings 4

Published Documents 10

Unpublished Documents 14

Full Bibliography

  • Eaton-Krauss, Marianne. "Pseudo-Groups." In Rainer Stadelmann and Hourig Sourouzian, eds. Kunst des Alten Reiches: Symposium im Deutschen Archäologischen Institut Kairo am 29. und 30. Oktober 1991. Sonderschrift des Deutschen Archäologischen Institut Abteilung Kairo 28, Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1995, pp. 60-61.

    Flentye, Laurel. "The Mastaba of Meresankh III (G 7530/7540) in the Eastern Cemetery at Giza: An Archaeological and Art Historical Analysis." Bulletin of the Egyptian Museum 3 (2006), p. 72.

    Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza 4: 1932-1933. Cairo: Government Press, 1943, pp. 125-150, figs. 71-105, pls. 36-39.

    Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza 9: 1936-37-38. The Mastabas of the Eighth Season and their Description. Cairo: General Organisation for Government Printing Offices, 1960, folded plan, H-7.

    Jánosi, Peter. "'...an intact burial-chamber belonging to a great lady of the Royal Family of the Fourth Dynasty' oder: Wo waren Chephrens Tochter bestattet?." In Antje Spiekermann, ed. Zur Zierde gereicht. . . Festschrift Bettina Schmitz zum 60. Geburtstag am 24. Juli 2008, HIldesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge 50. Hildesheim: Verlag Gebrüder Gerstenberg, 2008, p. 131.

    Jánosi, Peter. Giza in der 4 Dynastie: Die Baugeschichte und Belegung einer Nekropole des Alten Reiches. Band 1: Die Mastabas der Kernfriedhöfe und die Felsgräber. Denkschriften der Gesamtakademie 30. Untesuchungen der Zweigstelle Kairo des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes 24. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2005, fig. 71 after p. 302.

    Jánosi, Peter. "Gab es Kronprinzen in der 4. Dynastie?" Göttinger Miszellen 158 (1997), p. 26, note 66.

    Junker, Hermann. Gîza 3. Die Mastabas der vorgeschrittenen V. Dynastie auf dem Westfriedhof. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien Philosophisch-historische Klasse Denkschriften. Vienna & Leipzig: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1938, pp. 49-50 [47].

    Junker, Hermann. Gîza 5. Die Mastaba des Snb (Seneb) und die umliegenden Gräber. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien Philosophisch-historische Klasse Denkschriften 71, Abhandlung 2. Vienna & Leipzig: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1941. fig. 11, pp. 51-52.

    Lehner, Mark. "Giza. A Contextual Approach to the Pyramids." Archiv für Orientforschung 32 (1985), p. 149.

    Lepsius, Denkmaeler Text 1, pp. 102-104.

    Lepsius, Denkmaeler 2, pp. 12-14.

    Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 230-232, plans 21, B-2, 31.

    Reisner, George A. "The Tomb of Meresankh, a Great-Granddaughter of Queen Hetep-Heres and Sneferuw." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 25, No. 151 (October 1927), pp. 67-68.

    Reisner, George A. A History of the Giza Necropolis 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1942, pp. 236, 247-248, fig. 140.

    Rzepka, Slawomir. "Hidden Statues and Reliefs in Old Kingdom Tombs." Göttinger Miszellen 164 (1998), pp. 101-103, 105-109, figs. 2-4.

    Sethe, Kurt. Urkunden des Alten Reichs. Erster Band. Urkunden des Ägyptischen Altertums Abteilung 1, Hft. 1-4. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1903-1933, p. 16 [12].

    Smith, William Stevenson. "The Old Kingdom in Egypt," The Cambridge Ancient History, rev. ed. of vols. I & II, Cambridge University Press, 1962, p. 33.

    Woods, Alexandra. "Contribution to a Controversy: A Date For the Tomb of kA(=j)-m-anx at Giza." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 95 (2009), pp. 164, 168, note 66.

Photos 8

People 12

Ancient People

  • Ankhemre(?) (in G 8172)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Brother (?) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Name and title (both incompletely preserved) appear on fragment of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel, identified as [(sA nswt) n Xt=f] (king's son) of his body; found in debris of chapel of G 8172.
  • Duaenre(?) (in G 8172)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Brother (?) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Name and title (both incompletely preserved) appear above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [(sA nswt) n Xt=f] (king's son) of his body; in situ in G 8172. Also attested (main room, north wall) in the tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540). Possibly same individual as Duaenre (G 5110).
  • Inkaf (in G 8172)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears on right outer reveal of doorway to inner chapel, identified as [mHnk=f] his confidant(?); in situ in G 8172.
  • Iskha (in G 8172)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Central figure of limestone statue group of three seated men, identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; found in debris of inner chapel of G 8172.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Owner of G 8172 (Lepsius 86) and Lepsius 12. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Fragmentary entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Nebemakhet, identified as [sS mDAt(-nTr) smsw snwt n jt=f tAjtj sAb TAtj jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xt wr xt (?)] scribe of the (divine) book, elder of the snwt-house of his father, chief justice and vizier, hereditary prince, king's son of his body, chief lector-priest, khet-priest of the Great One, khet-priest of (?); found fallen in debris in front of entrance of G 8172. Originally appeared in chapel relief seated with his sister (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sS mDAt-nTr n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] scribe of the divine book of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in G 8172. Appears with his mother and sister above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [smr watj] sole companion, and with his wife on same wall, identified as [Hrj-sStA n jt=f] secretary of his father; in situ in G 8172. Originally appeared with his wife (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel; in situ in G 8172. Nebemakhet's name and titles also appear on fragments of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. Also entrance architrave, drum and jambs (very poorly preserved) originally inscribed for Nebemakhet (name partially preserved on northern door jamb), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f smr watj] hereditary prince, king's son of his body, sole companion; in situ in Lepsius 12. Also attested (main room, west wall) in tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540), and on back pillar (MFA 30.1457a) of fragmentary limestone statue of her; found in debris of forecourt of G 7530-7540.
  • Niuserre (G 8140)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Owner of G 8140. Entrance drum and left-hand door reveal inscribed for Niuserre, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp n it=f xtmw-bjtj smr watj r p nb] king's son of his body, chief lector-priest of his father, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt, sole companion, mouth of every Butite; in situ in G 8140. Brother (?) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Name and title (both incompletely preserved) appear on fragment of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel, identified as [(sA nswt) n Xt=f] (king's son) of his body; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. May be same individual as Niuserreankh (in G 7530-7540).
  • Nubhetep (in G 8172)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Appears with her husband on eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [rxt nswt Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt nht m swt=s (nbt)] royal acquaintance, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore in (all) her places; in situ in G 8172. Also originally appeared with her husband (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel, identified as [rxt nswt Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt nht] royal acquaintance, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore; in situ in G 8172.
  • Semerka (in G 8172)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears on right outer reveal of doorway to inner chapel, identified as [mHnk=f sS qdwt] his confidant(?), outline draughtsman; in situ in G 8172.
  • Shepsetkau (in G 8172)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Sister ([snt=f] his sister) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]); daughter of Queen Meresankh III. Originally appeared seated with her brother (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; in situ in G 8172. Also appears in reliefs from inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall and in fragment from northern wall), in both cases identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; in situ in G 8172. Stated by Reisner also to be represented by uninscribed statues on north wall of north room of G 7530-sub (G 7530-7540, tomb of Queen Meresankh III).

Modern People

  • (Karl) Richard Lepsius

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1810–1884
    • Remarks Egyptologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Selim Hassan (Bey)

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates Egyptian, 1886–1961
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Sub Director General. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1886-1961) Egyptian Egyptologist; born Mit-Nagi, 15 April 1886, he studied at the Higher Teacher's College, Cairo under Kamal (q.v.); in 1912 he became a teacher and in 1921 obtained a post in the Egyptian Museum as assistant keeper; he studied in Paris 1923-7 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes; he was the first Egyptian to be appointed as a Professor of Egyptology in the Universitv of Cairo, 1928 - 36; he was later made Deputy Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service responsible for the care of all monuments in the Nile valley, 1936-39; Ph.D. Vienna University, 1935; stimulated by the archaeological work of P. E. Newberry (q.v.) and Junker (q.v.)he began an active career in excavations with the clearance of some of the Giza mastabas in 1929; the excavations carried on by him in this necropolis continued until 1939 by which time a great deal of digging had been achieved, published in 10 parts; he also cleared the Sphinx and its temple, for the first time completely digging out the great amphitheatre around it and ensuring that it would not be buried by send again so easily; he wrote a study on this work and on the temple of Amenhotep II here; in addition the so-called Fourth Pyramid or the palace-façade tomb of Queen Khent-kawes of the Fourth Dynasty was investigated and also the funerary town of the priests associated with it; he later worked on the Unas causeway at Saqqara and at the valley temple of this king, discovering some of the mastabas in this area and two great subterranean tombs dated to the Second Dynasty; his final excavations at Giza were carried out on the east and south faces of the Great Pyramid and at the mortuary temple of King Khufu, 1938-9; he also took part in the campaign to save the monments of Nubia, and wrote a report on this subject; he published about 53 books and articles on Egyptological subjects in English, French, and Arabic, Hymnes religieux du Moyen Empire, 1928; Le Poème dit de Pentaour et Le rapport officiel sur la bataiILe de Qadesh , 1929; Excavations at Giza, 10 pts., 1929-60; The Sphinx. Its History in the Light of recent Excavations, 1949; Report on the Monunents of Nubia,1955Excavations at Saqqara 1937-8, 3 vols., 1975; in Arabic Literature of Ancient Egpt, 2 vols.; Ancient Egypt from Prehistoric Times to the Age of Rameses 11, 6 vols.; he died in Giza, 30 Sept. 1961. AfO 20 (1963), 310 (H. Brunner); Archaeology 14, no, 4 (1961, 293; ASAE 58 (1964), 61- 84 (bibl.) (Dia Abou-Ghazi); Orientalia 31 (1962), 271; Goettinger Miszellen 76 (1984), 78-80; Reid, JAOS 105 (1985), 237, 241-44.