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Details

  • Format
    Book
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Series
    Excavations at Gîza
  • Year Published
    1943
  • Citation Text
    Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza 4: 1932-1933. Cairo: Government Press, 1943.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Ankhemre(?) (in G 8172)
    Bunefer (G 8408)
    Debehen (G 8090)
    Djedef[...] (in G 8154)
    Duaenre(?) (in G 8172)
    Heknu (in G 8154)
    Heknuhedjet (in G 8154)
    Hetepheres I (G 7000 X)
    Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)
    Horkhaf (in G 8154)
    Idu (G 7102)
    Imaneith (G 8426)
    Imby (G 8910)
    In (in G 8154)
    Inkaf (in G 8172)
    Iskha (in G 8172)
    Kai (G 8720)
    Kaunisut (G 8960)
    Kek (in G 8154)
    Khafre
    Khafreankh (in G 8154)
    Khafrebaf (in G 8154)
    Khentkaus [I] (G 8400)
    Khufu
    Khufu[...]et (in G 8154)
    Menkaure
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Merrekh (in G 8154)
    Neb (in G 8154)
    Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)
    Nefer (G 8420)
    Niankhre (G 8130)
    Niankhsherit (in G 8428)
    Nikauhathor (in G 8942)
    Nikauhor (G 8091)
    Nimaatre (G 8900)
    Nimaatre (in G 8154)
    Niuserre (G 8140)
    Nubhetep (in G 8172)
    Qar (G 7101)
    Rawer [III] (G 8310)
    Rekhetre (G 8530)
    Renpetnefer (G 8602)
    Sekhemkare (G 8154)
    Sekhemkare (in G 8154)
    Sekhentiuka (G 8428)
    Semerka (in G 8172)
    Shepsesakhti (G 8660)
    Shepseskaf
    Shepsetkau (in G 8172)
    Userkaf
  • Publisher
    Government Press
  • Author
    Selim Hassan (Bey), Egyptian, 1886–1961

Tombs and Monuments 14

  • Central Field

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8090

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8091

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8130

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8140

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8154

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8172

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8400

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8420

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8426

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8428

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8720

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • Giza Plateau

    • Site Name Giza
  • Khentkaus Town

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)

People 52

Ancient People

  • Ankhemre(?) (in G 8172)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Brother (?) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Name and title (both incompletely preserved) appear on fragment of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel, identified as [(sA nswt) n Xt=f] (king's son) of his body; found in debris of chapel of G 8172.
  • Bunefer (G 8408)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8408. Daughter or wife of Shepseskaf. Southern, middle and northern chapel entrance lintels and drums, and northern and southern pilasters, inscribed for Bunefer, identified as [Hmt nswt wrt Hts Hm-nTr Spss-nbtj mAAt Hr stX sAt nswt n (Xt=f) Hm-nTr Hr (Spss-Xt) Hst wrt Hm-nTr TAspf] king's wife, great one of the hetes-sceptre, priestess of Shepses-Nebty (Shepseskaf), seer of Horus and Seth, king's daughter of (his body), priestess of the Horus Shepses-khet (Shepseskaf), great favorite, priestess of (the god) Tjasepef; in situ in G 8408. Secondary chapel entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Bunefer, identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-sceptre; in situ in G 8408. Also appears on limestone relief fragments, identified as [Hm-nTr HwtHr] priestess of Hathor; found displaced in chapel debris of G 8408.
  • Debehen (G 8090)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8090. Chapel entrance architrave, drum and door reveals inscribed for Debehen, identified as [smr watj jmj-jb nb=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt jrj nfr-HAt sXkr Hr Hrj-wDbw m Hwt-anx xrp aH aD-mr Hr sbAw xntj pt jmj-r swt Spswt nt pr-aA mrjj nb=f] sole companion, who is in the heart of his lord, chief lector-priest, secretary of the House of Morning, keeper of the headdress, adorner of Horus, master of reversions-offerings in the Mansion of Life, director of the palace, administrator of the district 'Star-of-Horus-Foremost-of-Heaven', overseer of august places of the Great House, beloved of his lord; in situ in G 8090. Appears in chapel relief (seated on north wall), identified as [smr jr mrrt nb=f] companion, one who does what his lord loves; in situ in G 8090. Eastern jamb of entrance to second (northern) room inscribed for Debehen, identified as [Hrj-tp nxb] overlord of El-Kab; in situ in G 8090. Southern wall of second room inscribed for Debehen, identified as [nswt ... jmj-jb n nTr=f mrr nb=f mrj...] royal ..., who is in the heart of his god, beloved of his lord, who is beloved...; first half in situ in G 8090, second on slab found displaced in debris of second room. A number of fragmentary limestone slabs are inscribed with the name and titles of Debehen, identified as [(Hrj-sS)tA n nswt smr n jb nb=f] royal (secretary), companion and favorite of his lord; found displaced in debris of second room, probably originally from northern wall of second room. Poorly preserved false door inscribed for Debehen; in situ in western wall of second room of G 8090.
  • Djedef[...] (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears (figure and name only partially preserved) carrying bird on stone slab originally from entrance door left-hand reveal; found in debris in front of entrance to G 8154.
  • Duaenre(?) (in G 8172)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Brother (?) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Name and title (both incompletely preserved) appear above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [(sA nswt) n Xt=f] (king's son) of his body; in situ in G 8172. Also attested (main room, north wall) in the tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540). Possibly same individual as Duaenre (G 5110).
  • Heknu (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears (figure only partially preserved) on stone slab originally from entrance door left-hand reveal; found in debris in front of entrance to G 8154.
  • Heknuhedjet (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]) and wife of Khafre. Appears seated with her son on western wall of room a1, identified as [wrt Hts (Hmt nswt) mrt=f] great one of the hetes-scepter, (king's wife), his beloved; in situ in G 8154. Also appears seated with her son on eastern wall of room a2, identified as [mAAt (Hr) stX Hm-nTr bApf(?)] seer of Horus and Seth, priestess of Bapef(?); in situ in G 8154.
  • Hetepheres I (G 7000 X)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of King Snefru, founder of Egypt’s Fourth Dynasty, and mother of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid. Her burial was hidden in a secret chamber (labeled G 7000 X) nearly 90 feet underground, and contained beautiful pieces of gilded and inlaid wooden furniture, silver jewelry, and a large alabaster sarcophagus that was found to be mysteriously empty.
  • Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Original owner of G 7110, along with Kawab (owner of G 7120). Appears with her daughter Meresankh III in G 7530-7540 (east and west walls, main room), and in pair statue MFA 30.1456 (= 27-4-963 + 27-4-964 + 27-4-965). Later married to a king, possibly Djedefre (Radjedef) according to Reisner, but Khafre is also a possibility. Her association with G 7350, and its sarcophagus is uncertain. Also mentioned in tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Horkhaf (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]). Appears kneeling before his parents in top register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8154.
  • Idu (G 7102)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7102. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, statuary), identified variously as [jmj-r Hwt wrt jmj-r sSw mrt xntj-S mnnfr-ppj Xrj tp nswt] overseer of the great chapel, overseer of scribes of the meret-serfs, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Pepi, he who is at the head of the king; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Idu (in G 7101), son of Qar (owner of G 7101). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.
  • Imaneith (G 8426)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8426. Broken entrance architrave inscribed for Imaneith, identifed as [wab nswt] royal wab-priest; found fallen in debris in front of entrance to G 8426. Uninscribed head of male granite statuette found in shaft 1695.
  • Imby (G 8910)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8910. Entrance lintel inscribed for Imby, identified as [jmj-r Hmw-kA mwt-nswt jmj-r n st xntjw-S pr-aA] overseer of ka-priests of the king's mother, overseer of the department of palace attendants of the Great House; found displaced in front of G 8910. Drum inscribed for Imby, identified as [jmj-r Hmw-kA jmj-r n st pr-aA] overseer of ka-priests, overseer of the department of the Great House; false door of Imby, identified as [jmj-r Hmw-kA mwt-nswt] overseer of ka-priests of the king's mother; both in situ in G 8910. Seated limestone statue of Imby, identified as [jmj-r Hmw-kA mwt-nswt rx nswt sHD pr-aA sHD xntjw-S pr-aA nb jmAx xr nb=f] overseer of ka-priests of the king's mother, royal acquaintance, inspector of the Great House, inspector of palace attendants of the Great House, possessor of reverence before his lord; in situ in serdab of G 8910.
  • In (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears (name perhaps incompletely preserved) carrying bird to Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]) in second register of eastern wall of room a-1; in situ in G 8154.
  • Inkaf (in G 8172)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears on right outer reveal of doorway to inner chapel, identified as [mHnk=f] his confidant(?); in situ in G 8172.
  • Iskha (in G 8172)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Central figure of limestone statue group of three seated men, identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; found in debris of inner chapel of G 8172.
  • Kai (G 8720)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8720. Entrance jambs and reveals (poorly preserved) inscribed for Kai, identified as [sa nswt jmj-r Xnw xtmw nTr wjA] king's son, overseer of the residence, god's sealer of the ship; in situ in G 8720. Inner chapel entrance lintel inscribed for Kai; in situ in G 8720. Also three model alabaster cups inscribed for [sA nswt kAj] king's son Kai; found displaced in G 8720. Possibly same individual as Kai (in G III-a temple), a descendent of Queen Khamerernebti II, based on five model alabaster vessels found in G III-a temple, inscribed for [sA nswt kAj] king's son Kai.
  • Kaunisut (G 8960)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8960. Northern false door inscribed for Kaunisut, identified as [jmj-xnt xrp jrw Sn xrp aH jrj nfr-HAt Hrj-sStA jmj-r js] he who is in the forecourt, director of hairdressers, director of the palace, keeper of the diadem, secretary, overseer of the is-chamber; in situ in G 8960. Also appears on southern entrance door jambs and drum, identified (on drum) as [jmj-xnt Hm-nTr nxbt Hm-nTr wADt jrj nfr-HAt xrp jrw Sn] he who is in the forecourt, priest of Nekhbet, priest of Wadjet, keeper of the diadem, director of hairdressers; in situ in G 8960.
  • Kek (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears in third register of eastern wall of room a2, identified as [sHD Hmw-kA] inspector of ka-priests; in situ in G 8154.
  • Khafre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khafreankh (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]). Appears kneeling before his parents in top register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8154.
  • Khafrebaf (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]). Appears kneeling before his parents in top register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8154.
  • Khentkaus [I] (G 8400)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8400. Possible daughter of Menkaure. Chapel entrance door jambs and fragments of false door inscribed for Khentkaus, identified as [mwt nswt-bjtj nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] mother of the two kings of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god; in situ in G 8400. Alternately the titles may read [nswt-bjtj mwt nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] king of Upper and Lower Egypt, mother of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god.
  • Khufu

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Khufu[...]et (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]). Appears (name not completely legible) seated with her husband on eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8154. Possibly also appears on entrance door right-hand reveal seated with her husband (name not preserved); in situ in G 8154.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Merrekh (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears in badly damaged second register of western wall of room a1, identified as [sS n pr-Dt] scribe of the House of Eternity; in situ in G 8154.
  • Neb (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears carrying bird (not preserved) to Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]) in second register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [sHD Hmw-kA] inspector of ka-priests; in situ in G 8154.
  • Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8172 (Lepsius 86) and Lepsius 12. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Fragmentary entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Nebemakhet, identified as [sS mDAt(-nTr) smsw snwt n jt=f tAjtj sAb TAtj jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xt wr xt (?)] scribe of the (divine) book, elder of the snwt-house of his father, chief justice and vizier, hereditary prince, king's son of his body, chief lector-priest, khet-priest of the Great One, khet-priest of (?); found fallen in debris in front of entrance of G 8172. Originally appeared in chapel relief seated with his sister (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sS mDAt-nTr n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] scribe of the divine book of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in G 8172. Appears with his mother and sister above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [smr watj] sole companion, and with his wife on same wall, identified as [Hrj-sStA n jt=f] secretary of his father; in situ in G 8172. Originally appeared with his wife (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel; in situ in G 8172. Nebemakhet's name and titles also appear on fragments of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. Also entrance architrave, drum and jambs (very poorly preserved) originally inscribed for Nebemakhet (name partially preserved on northern door jamb), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f smr watj] hereditary prince, king's son of his body, sole companion; in situ in Lepsius 12. Also attested (main room, west wall) in tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540), and on back pillar (MFA 30.1457a) of fragmentary limestone statue of her; found in debris of forecourt of G 7530-7540.
  • Nefer (G 8420)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8420. Chapel entrance drum, door jambs and reveals inscribed for Nefer (figures and inscriptions poorly preserved), identified as [Hrj-sStA xrp aH xrp irw Sn nswt] secretary, director of the palace, director of royal hairdressers; in situ in G 8420. Northern false door inscribed for Nefer, identified as [smr wab nswt Hm-nTr xafra] companion, royal wab-priest, priest of Khafre; found in two pieces on chapel floor of G 8420. Also appears in destroyed chapel relief; in situ in G 8420.
  • Niankhre (G 8130)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8130. Entrance architrave and drum inscribed for Niankhre, identified as [sA nswt smr watj Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt Hrj-sStA nswt m swt=f nbt jmj-jb n nb=f mrr nb=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-sStA n mdw-nTr jmj-r kAt nbt nt nswt Xrj-tp nswt smsw js jwn-knmwt mdw rxjjt xrp wsxt wD wDa-mdw mAa n Hrjw-wDbw] king's son, sole companion, secretary of the House of Morning, secretary of the king in all his places, he who is in the heart of his lord, beloved of his lord, lector-priest, secretary of the sacred writings, overseer of all royal works, royal chamberlain, elder of the is-chamber, iun-kenmut priest, staff of the commoners, director of the broad hall, true giver of judgements to the masters of reversion-offerings; in situ in G 8130.
  • Niankhsherit (in G 8428)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Sekhentiuka (owner of G 8428). Appears seated with her husband on fragments of entrance lintel; found reused as roofing in serdab of nearby mastaba, originally from G 8428. Also appears on northern and southern faces of chapel pillar, identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8428.
  • Nikauhathor (in G 8942)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Akhethetep (owner of G 8942). False door and lintel inscribed for Nikauhathor, identified as [rxt nswt Hm-kA mwt-nswt] royal acquaintance, ka-priest of the king's mother; in situ in chapel of G 8942.
  • Nikauhor (G 8091)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8091. False door inscribed for Nikauhor, identified as [jmj-r sSw AHt Hm-nTr mAat nj-nst-xntt] overseer of scribes of the land, priest of Maat, preeminent of place; in situ in G 8091.
  • Nimaatre (G 8900)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Co-owner (with Neferesris) of G 8900. Chapel entrance architrave, door jambs and reveals inscribed for Nimaatre, identified as [jmj-r Hst pr-aA xrp tjs bjtj jmj-r sxmx-jb nb nfr m Xnw StAw pr-aA] overseer of singing in the Great House, director of companions(?) of the king of Lower Egypt, overseer of every good entertainment in the secret interior of the Great House; in situ in south chapel of G 8900. Interior chapel architrave and pillars inscribed for Nimaatre, identified as [jmj-r sxmx-jb nb nfr stp-sA Xr(-tp) st nswt smr-pr Hrj-sStA jmj-jb n nb=f ra nb] overseer of every good entertainment, bodyguard of the throne of the king, companion of the house, secretary, he who is in the heart of his lord every day; in situ in south chapel of G 8900. False door and lintel inscribed for Nimaatre, identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr ra m Sspjbra wab mnswt-njwsrra] royal wab-priest, pnest of Re in the sun-temple of Niuserre, wab-priest of the pyramid of Niuserre; also appears in damaged chapel relief (southern, eastern and western walls); in situ in south chapel of G 8900.
  • Nimaatre (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears carrying birds to Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]) in second register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; in situ in G 8154.
  • Niuserre (G 8140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8140. Entrance drum and left-hand door reveal inscribed for Niuserre, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp n it=f xtmw-bjtj smr watj r p nb] king's son of his body, chief lector-priest of his father, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt, sole companion, mouth of every Butite; in situ in G 8140. Brother (?) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Name and title (both incompletely preserved) appear on fragment of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel, identified as [(sA nswt) n Xt=f] (king's son) of his body; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. May be same individual as Niuserreankh (in G 7530-7540).
  • Nubhetep (in G 8172)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Appears with her husband on eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [rxt nswt Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt nht m swt=s (nbt)] royal acquaintance, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore in (all) her places; in situ in G 8172. Also originally appeared with her husband (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel, identified as [rxt nswt Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt nht] royal acquaintance, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore; in situ in G 8172.
  • Qar (G 7101)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7101. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, pillar), identified variously as [jmj-r kAt nbt xntj-S mnnfr-mrjjra Xrj tp nswt sS a nswt xft-Hr mAa] overseer of all works, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Meryre (Pepi I), he who is at the head of the king, true royal document scribe in the presence; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Qar (in G 7102), son of Idu (owner of G 7102). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.
  • Rawer [III] (G 8310)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8310 = Lepsius 94.
  • Rekhetre (G 8530)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Daughter of Khephren
  • Renpetnefer (G 8602)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8602. Entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Renpetnefer, identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr mwt-nswt] royal wab-priest, priest of the king's mother (Khentkaus [I] ?); in situ in G 8602. Also appears in relief on door jamb reveals (poorly preserved); in situ in G 8602.
  • Sekhemkare (G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8154 (Lepsius 89). Entrance door jambs, right-hand reveal and drum inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj-pat hAtj-a jmj js xtmw-bjtj Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp n jt=f smr watj Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt aA dwAw Hrj-sStA n jt=f] king's son of his body, hereditary prince, count, councillor, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt, chief lector-priest of his father, sole companion, secretary of the House of Morning, assistant of (the god) Duau, secretary of his father; in situ in G 8154. Appears seated with his mother on western wall and seated with his wife on eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [tAjtj sAb TAtj] chief justice and vizier; in situ in G 8154. Also appears seated with his mother on eastern wall of room a-2, identified as [xrp aH] director of the palace; in situ in G 8154. Western wall of room a-2 inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xrp sSw mDAt nt (jt=f) smr watj n jt=f wt jnpw] chief lector-priest, director of scribes of the documents of (his father), sole companion of his father, embalmer of Anubis; in situ in G 8154. Northern wall of room a-2 inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [jmAx xr jt=f nswt xr nTr aA xr nswt-bjtj xafra xr nswt-bjtj mnkAwra xr nswt-bjtj SpsskAf xr nswt-bjtj wsrkAf xr nswt-bjtj sAHwra] revered before his father the king, before the Great God, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Khafre, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Menkaure, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Shepseskaf, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Userkaf, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Sahure; in situ in G 8154.
  • Sekhemkare (in G 8154)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Eldest son ([sA=f smsw] his eldest son) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]). Appears kneeling before his parents in top register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8154.
  • Sekhentiuka (G 8428)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8428. Fragments of entrance lintel inscribed for Sekhentiuka, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; found reused as roofing in serdab of nearby mastaba, originally from G 8428. Also appears (sometimes with his wife) on all four faces of chapel pillar; in situ in G 8428.
  • Semerka (in G 8172)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears on right outer reveal of doorway to inner chapel, identified as [mHnk=f sS qdwt] his confidant(?), outline draughtsman; in situ in G 8172.
  • Shepsesakhti (G 8660)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8660. Northern false door inscribed for Shepsesakhti, identified as [sHD Hmw-nTr mwt nswt rx nswt] inspector of priests of the king's mother, royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8660.
  • Shepseskaf

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Last king of Dynasty 4. Son of Menkaure. Horus name: [SpsXt] Shepseskhet.
  • Shepsetkau (in G 8172)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Sister ([snt=f] his sister) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]); daughter of Queen Meresankh III. Originally appeared seated with her brother (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; in situ in G 8172. Also appears in reliefs from inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall and in fragment from northern wall), in both cases identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; in situ in G 8172. Stated by Reisner also to be represented by uninscribed statues on north wall of north room of G 7530-sub (G 7530-7540, tomb of Queen Meresankh III).
  • Userkaf

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks First king of Dynasty 5. Horus name: [jrjmAat] Irymaat.

Modern People

  • Selim Hassan (Bey)

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates Egyptian, 1886–1961
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Sub Director General. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1886-1961) Egyptian Egyptologist; born Mit-Nagi, 15 April 1886, he studied at the Higher Teacher's College, Cairo under Kamal (q.v.); in 1912 he became a teacher and in 1921 obtained a post in the Egyptian Museum as assistant keeper; he studied in Paris 1923-7 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes; he was the first Egyptian to be appointed as a Professor of Egyptology in the Universitv of Cairo, 1928 - 36; he was later made Deputy Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service responsible for the care of all monuments in the Nile valley, 1936-39; Ph.D. Vienna University, 1935; stimulated by the archaeological work of P. E. Newberry (q.v.) and Junker (q.v.)he began an active career in excavations with the clearance of some of the Giza mastabas in 1929; the excavations carried on by him in this necropolis continued until 1939 by which time a great deal of digging had been achieved, published in 10 parts; he also cleared the Sphinx and its temple, for the first time completely digging out the great amphitheatre around it and ensuring that it would not be buried by send again so easily; he wrote a study on this work and on the temple of Amenhotep II here; in addition the so-called Fourth Pyramid or the palace-façade tomb of Queen Khent-kawes of the Fourth Dynasty was investigated and also the funerary town of the priests associated with it; he later worked on the Unas causeway at Saqqara and at the valley temple of this king, discovering some of the mastabas in this area and two great subterranean tombs dated to the Second Dynasty; his final excavations at Giza were carried out on the east and south faces of the Great Pyramid and at the mortuary temple of King Khufu, 1938-9; he also took part in the campaign to save the monments of Nubia, and wrote a report on this subject; he published about 53 books and articles on Egyptological subjects in English, French, and Arabic, Hymnes religieux du Moyen Empire, 1928; Le Poème dit de Pentaour et Le rapport officiel sur la bataiILe de Qadesh , 1929; Excavations at Giza, 10 pts., 1929-60; The Sphinx. Its History in the Light of recent Excavations, 1949; Report on the Monunents of Nubia,1955Excavations at Saqqara 1937-8, 3 vols., 1975; in Arabic Literature of Ancient Egpt, 2 vols.; Ancient Egypt from Prehistoric Times to the Age of Rameses 11, 6 vols.; he died in Giza, 30 Sept. 1961. AfO 20 (1963), 310 (H. Brunner); Archaeology 14, no, 4 (1961, 293; ASAE 58 (1964), 61- 84 (bibl.) (Dia Abou-Ghazi); Orientalia 31 (1962), 271; Goettinger Miszellen 76 (1984), 78-80; Reid, JAOS 105 (1985), 237, 241-44.

Institutions 1