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  • Tomb Owner
    Nefer (G 8420)
  • Attested
    Nikaukhnum (in G 8420)
    Nisu-usert (in G 8420)
    Nubiret (in G 8420)
  • Excavator
    (Karl) Richard Lepsius, German, 1810–1884
    Selim Hassan (Bey), Egyptian, 1886–1961
  • Abou-Ghazi No (ASAE 58 [1964])
  • Lepsius No
    LG 99
    Lepsius 99
  • Hassan No.
  • PorterMoss Date
    Middle Dynasty 5 or later
  • Site Type
    Rock-cut tomb
  • Shafts
    S 598; S 684; S 685; S 767; S 778; chapel; courtyard
  • Remarks
    Mastaba built west north of G 8400 (Lepsius 100), west of G 8658 (Medunefer (2)). Excavated in 1931-1932 by Hassan.

Finds 2

Maps & Plans 3

Drawings 1

Published Documents 5

Full Bibliography

  • Brovarski, Edward. "The Doors of Heaven." Orientalia 46 (1977), p. 110.

    Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza 3: 1931-1932. Cairo: Faculty of Arts, Fouad I University & Government Press, 1941, pp. 200-218, figs. 167-189, pls. 59-61.

    Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza 4: 1932-1933. Cairo: Government Press, 1943, pp. 71, 85, fig. 41.

    Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza 9: 1936-37-38. The Mastabas of the Eighth Season and their Description. Cairo: General Organisation for Government Printing Offices, 1960, folded plan, P-13.

    Lepsius, Denkmaeler Text 1, p. 121.

    Lepsius, Denkmaeler 1, p. 31.

    Lepsius, Denkmaeler 2, p. 95.

    Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 258-259, plan 23.

    Strudwick, Nigel. "Three Monuments of Old Kingdom Treasury Officials." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 71 (1985), p. 51.

People 6

Ancient People

  • Nefer (G 8420)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Owner of G 8420. Chapel entrance drum, door jambs and reveals inscribed for Nefer (figures and inscriptions poorly preserved), identified as [Hrj-sStA xrp aH xrp irw Sn nswt] secretary, director of the palace, director of royal hairdressers; in situ in G 8420. Northern false door inscribed for Nefer, identified as [smr wab nswt Hm-nTr xafra] companion, royal wab-priest, priest of Khafre; found in two pieces on chapel floor of G 8420. Also appears in destroyed chapel relief; in situ in G 8420.
  • Nikaukhnum (in G 8420)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Nefer (owner of G 8420). Appears on chapel entrance, left door jamb and right reveal (figures and inscriptions poorly preserved), identified as [sS] scribe; in situ in G 8420. Also appears on relief fragments, identified as [...nbt nt nswt] ...of all...of the king; found displaced inside and in front of G 8420.
  • Nisu-usert (in G 8420)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Red granite slab inscribed for Nisu-usert, identified as [jmj-r pr-HD] overseer of the treasury; found displcaed in G 8420.
  • Nubiret (in G 8420)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Nefer (owner of G 8420). Appears on chapel entrance, left door jamb and reveal (figures and inscriptions poorly preserved), identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8420.

Modern People

  • (Karl) Richard Lepsius

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1810–1884
    • Remarks Egyptologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Selim Hassan (Bey)

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates Egyptian, 1886–1961
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Sub Director General. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1886-1961) Egyptian Egyptologist; born Mit-Nagi, 15 April 1886, he studied at the Higher Teacher's College, Cairo under Kamal (q.v.); in 1912 he became a teacher and in 1921 obtained a post in the Egyptian Museum as assistant keeper; he studied in Paris 1923-7 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes; he was the first Egyptian to be appointed as a Professor of Egyptology in the Universitv of Cairo, 1928 - 36; he was later made Deputy Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service responsible for the care of all monuments in the Nile valley, 1936-39; Ph.D. Vienna University, 1935; stimulated by the archaeological work of P. E. Newberry (q.v.) and Junker (q.v.)he began an active career in excavations with the clearance of some of the Giza mastabas in 1929; the excavations carried on by him in this necropolis continued until 1939 by which time a great deal of digging had been achieved, published in 10 parts; he also cleared the Sphinx and its temple, for the first time completely digging out the great amphitheatre around it and ensuring that it would not be buried by send again so easily; he wrote a study on this work and on the temple of Amenhotep II here; in addition the so-called Fourth Pyramid or the palace-façade tomb of Queen Khent-kawes of the Fourth Dynasty was investigated and also the funerary town of the priests associated with it; he later worked on the Unas causeway at Saqqara and at the valley temple of this king, discovering some of the mastabas in this area and two great subterranean tombs dated to the Second Dynasty; his final excavations at Giza were carried out on the east and south faces of the Great Pyramid and at the mortuary temple of King Khufu, 1938-9; he also took part in the campaign to save the monments of Nubia, and wrote a report on this subject; he published about 53 books and articles on Egyptological subjects in English, French, and Arabic, Hymnes religieux du Moyen Empire, 1928; Le Poème dit de Pentaour et Le rapport officiel sur la bataiILe de Qadesh , 1929; Excavations at Giza, 10 pts., 1929-60; The Sphinx. Its History in the Light of recent Excavations, 1949; Report on the Monunents of Nubia,1955Excavations at Saqqara 1937-8, 3 vols., 1975; in Arabic Literature of Ancient Egpt, 2 vols.; Ancient Egypt from Prehistoric Times to the Age of Rameses 11, 6 vols.; he died in Giza, 30 Sept. 1961. AfO 20 (1963), 310 (H. Brunner); Archaeology 14, no, 4 (1961, 293; ASAE 58 (1964), 61- 84 (bibl.) (Dia Abou-Ghazi); Orientalia 31 (1962), 271; Goettinger Miszellen 76 (1984), 78-80; Reid, JAOS 105 (1985), 237, 241-44.