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*The original, paper version of this page in “Chapter 16: The Royal Family of Dynasty Four” can be found in archival box L01 in the Egyptian Section archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Details

  • Classification
    Documentation-Unpublished manuscripts
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Date
    about 1934—1942
  • Mentioned on page
    Duaenre(?) (in G 8172)
    Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)
    Horkhaf (in G 8154)
    Khafre
    Khafreankh (in G 8154)
    Khafrebaf (in G 8154)
    Khufu
    Meresankh II (G 7410-7420)
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)
    Nubhetep (in G 8172)
    Sekhemkare (G 8154)
    Shepsetkau (in G 8172)
  • Author
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942

Tombs and Monuments 3

Photos 1

People 14

Ancient People

  • Duaenre(?) (in G 8172)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Brother (?) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Name and title (both incompletely preserved) appear above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [(sA nswt) n Xt=f] (king's son) of his body; in situ in G 8172. Also attested (main room, north wall) in the tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540). Possibly same individual as Duaenre (G 5110).
  • Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Original owner of G 7110, along with Kawab (owner of G 7120). Appears with her daughter Meresankh III in G 7530-7540 (east and west walls, main room), and in pair statue MFA 30.1456 (= 27-4-963 + 27-4-964 + 27-4-965). Later married to a king, possibly Djedefre (Radjedef) according to Reisner, but Khafre is also a possibility. Her association with G 7350, and its sarcophagus is uncertain. Also mentioned in tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Horkhaf (in G 8154)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]). Appears kneeling before his parents in top register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8154.
  • Khafre

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khafreankh (in G 8154)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]). Appears kneeling before his parents in top register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8154.
  • Khafrebaf (in G 8154)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Sekhemkare (owner of G 8154 [Lepsius 89]). Appears kneeling before his parents in top register of eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8154.
  • Khufu

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Meresankh II (G 7410-7420)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Meresankh buried in G 7410.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8172 (Lepsius 86) and Lepsius 12. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Fragmentary entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Nebemakhet, identified as [sS mDAt(-nTr) smsw snwt n jt=f tAjtj sAb TAtj jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xt wr xt (?)] scribe of the (divine) book, elder of the snwt-house of his father, chief justice and vizier, hereditary prince, king's son of his body, chief lector-priest, khet-priest of the Great One, khet-priest of (?); found fallen in debris in front of entrance of G 8172. Originally appeared in chapel relief seated with his sister (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sS mDAt-nTr n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] scribe of the divine book of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in G 8172. Appears with his mother and sister above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [smr watj] sole companion, and with his wife on same wall, identified as [Hrj-sStA n jt=f] secretary of his father; in situ in G 8172. Originally appeared with his wife (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel; in situ in G 8172. Nebemakhet's name and titles also appear on fragments of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. Also entrance architrave, drum and jambs (very poorly preserved) originally inscribed for Nebemakhet (name partially preserved on northern door jamb), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f smr watj] hereditary prince, king's son of his body, sole companion; in situ in Lepsius 12. Also attested (main room, west wall) in tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540), and on back pillar (MFA 30.1457a) of fragmentary limestone statue of her; found in debris of forecourt of G 7530-7540.
  • Nubhetep (in G 8172)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]). Appears with her husband on eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [rxt nswt Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt nht m swt=s (nbt)] royal acquaintance, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore in (all) her places; in situ in G 8172. Also originally appeared with her husband (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel, identified as [rxt nswt Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt nht] royal acquaintance, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-the-Sycamore; in situ in G 8172.
  • Sekhemkare (G 8154)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8154 (Lepsius 89). Entrance door jambs, right-hand reveal and drum inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj-pat hAtj-a jmj js xtmw-bjtj Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp n jt=f smr watj Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt aA dwAw Hrj-sStA n jt=f] king's son of his body, hereditary prince, count, councillor, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt, chief lector-priest of his father, sole companion, secretary of the House of Morning, assistant of (the god) Duau, secretary of his father; in situ in G 8154. Appears seated with his mother on western wall and seated with his wife on eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [tAjtj sAb TAtj] chief justice and vizier; in situ in G 8154. Also appears seated with his mother on eastern wall of room a-2, identified as [xrp aH] director of the palace; in situ in G 8154. Western wall of room a-2 inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xrp sSw mDAt nt (jt=f) smr watj n jt=f wt jnpw] chief lector-priest, director of scribes of the documents of (his father), sole companion of his father, embalmer of Anubis; in situ in G 8154. Northern wall of room a-2 inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [jmAx xr jt=f nswt xr nTr aA xr nswt-bjtj xafra xr nswt-bjtj mnkAwra xr nswt-bjtj SpsskAf xr nswt-bjtj wsrkAf xr nswt-bjtj sAHwra] revered before his father the king, before the Great God, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Khafre, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Menkaure, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Shepseskaf, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Userkaf, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Sahure; in situ in G 8154.
  • Shepsetkau (in G 8172)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Sister ([snt=f] his sister) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]); daughter of Queen Meresankh III. Originally appeared seated with her brother (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; in situ in G 8172. Also appears in reliefs from inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall and in fragment from northern wall), in both cases identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; in situ in G 8172. Stated by Reisner also to be represented by uninscribed statues on north wall of north room of G 7530-sub (G 7530-7540, tomb of Queen Meresankh III).

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.