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*The original, paper version of this page in “Chapter 16: The Royal Family of Dynasty Four” can be found in archival box L01 in the Egyptian Section archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Details

  • Classification
    Documentation-Unpublished manuscripts
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Date
    about 1934—1942
  • Author
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
  • Mentioned on page
    Duaenre (G 5110)
    Kawab (G 7110-7120)
    Khafre
    Khemetnu (G 5210)
    Menkaure
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)
    Shepsetkau (in G 8172)

Tombs and Monuments 4

  • G 5110

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 7530-7540

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 8172

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G III-b

    • Site Name Menkaure Pyramid Complex

Photos 1

People 9

Ancient People

  • Duaenre (G 5110)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5110. Appears in chapel relief (west, south, east, and north walls [only lower legs and feet preserved in situ on west, east, and north walls], and chapel entrance north and south door jambs), and displaced fragment of lintel (MFA 34.1465), identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj(-pat) HAtj-a tAjtj sS mDAt-nTr r nxn r p nb] king's son of his body, hereditary (prince), count, vizier, scribe of the divine book, mouth of Nekhen, mouth of every Butite; in situ in G 5110. Uninscribed sarcohpagus of Duaenre (Turin S.1838, Turin S.1839); Schiaparelli excavations. Possibly same individual as Duare (in G 3098b) and/or Duaenre (in G 8172).
  • Kawab (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7120, along with Hetepheres [II] (original owner of G 7110). Son of Khufu and Meretites [I]. Appears in chapel relief in tomb of his daughter Meresankh III (owner of G 7530-7540), main room (east wall), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt smsw n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xrp jAwt nTrt aA dwAw] hereditary prince, king's eldest son of his body, chief lector-priest, director of divine offices, assistant of (the god) Duau; in situ in G 7530-7540). Also mentioned in tomb of his steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Khafre

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khemetnu (G 5210)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5210. Architectural element (frieze-text, including back side of one block also inscribed for Khemetnu) and upper lintels of north and south niches (south niche also includes tablet and cross-bar = lower lintel) inscribed for Khemetnu, identified as [rx nswt jmj-r Hmw-kA wab nswt Hm-nTr xwfw jmj-r pr n jrj-pat sa nswt kAwab jmj-r pr n wrt Hzt sAt nswt mrsanx jmj-r pr n (sAt?)- nswt ... HtpHrs] royal acquaintance, overseer of ka-priests, royal wab-priest, priest of Khufu, steward of the hereditary prince, king's son Kawab, steward of "Great-of-Praise", king's daughter Meresankh, steward of the king's daughter ... Hetepheres; in situ in G 5210. Also appears chapel relief in tomb of Meresankh III (owner of G 7530-7540: G 7530), chapel entrance south door jamb, and room a (= main room), west wall (panel of relief south of false door) with same titles.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8172 (Lepsius 86) and Lepsius 12. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Fragmentary entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Nebemakhet, identified as [sS mDAt(-nTr) smsw snwt n jt=f tAjtj sAb TAtj jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xt wr xt (?)] scribe of the (divine) book, elder of the snwt-house of his father, chief justice and vizier, hereditary prince, king's son of his body, chief lector-priest, khet-priest of the Great One, khet-priest of (?); found fallen in debris in front of entrance of G 8172. Originally appeared in chapel relief seated with his sister (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sS mDAt-nTr n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] scribe of the divine book of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in G 8172. Appears with his mother and sister above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [smr watj] sole companion, and with his wife on same wall, identified as [Hrj-sStA n jt=f] secretary of his father; in situ in G 8172. Originally appeared with his wife (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel; in situ in G 8172. Nebemakhet's name and titles also appear on fragments of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. Also entrance architrave, drum and jambs (very poorly preserved) originally inscribed for Nebemakhet (name partially preserved on northern door jamb), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f smr watj] hereditary prince, king's son of his body, sole companion; in situ in Lepsius 12. Also attested (main room, west wall) in tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540), and on back pillar (MFA 30.1457a) of fragmentary limestone statue of her; found in debris of forecourt of G 7530-7540.
  • Shepsetkau (in G 8172)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Sister ([snt=f] his sister) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 [Lepsius 86]); daughter of Queen Meresankh III. Originally appeared seated with her brother (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; in situ in G 8172. Also appears in reliefs from inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall and in fragment from northern wall), in both cases identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; in situ in G 8172. Stated by Reisner also to be represented by uninscribed statues on north wall of north room of G 7530-sub (G 7530-7540, tomb of Queen Meresankh III).

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.