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*The original, paper version of this page in “Chapter 15: Chronological Order of Finished Mastabas in the Giza Necropolis” can be found in archival box K15 in the Egyptian Section archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Details

  • Classification
    Documentation-Unpublished manuscripts
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Date
    about 1934—1942
  • Mentioned on page
    Debehen (G 8090)
    Duaenre (G 5110)
    Khafre
    Khufu
    Khufudjedef (Mastaba IV)
    Menkaure
    Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)
  • Author
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942

Tombs and Monuments 6

Photos 1

People 8

Ancient People

  • Debehen (G 8090)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8090. Chapel entrance architrave, drum and door reveals inscribed for Debehen, identified as [smr watj jmj-jb nb=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt jrj nfr-HAt sXkr Hr Hrj-wDbw m Hwt-anx xrp aH aD-mr Hr sbAw xntj pt jmj-r swt Spswt nt pr-aA mrjj nb=f] sole companion, who is in the heart of his lord, chief lector-priest, secretary of the House of Morning, keeper of the headdress, adorner of Horus, master of reversions-offerings in the Mansion of Life, director of the palace, administrator of the district 'Star-of-Horus-Foremost-of-Heaven', overseer of august places of the Great House, beloved of his lord; in situ in G 8090. Appears in chapel relief (seated on north wall), identified as [smr jr mrrt nb=f] companion, one who does what his lord loves; in situ in G 8090. Eastern jamb of entrance to second (northern) room inscribed for Debehen, identified as [Hrj-tp nxb] overlord of El-Kab; in situ in G 8090. Southern wall of second room inscribed for Debehen, identified as [nswt ... jmj-jb n nTr=f mrr nb=f mrj...] royal ..., who is in the heart of his god, beloved of his lord, who is beloved...; first half in situ in G 8090, second on slab found displaced in debris of second room. A number of fragmentary limestone slabs are inscribed with the name and titles of Debehen, identified as [(Hrj-sS)tA n nswt smr n jb nb=f] royal (secretary), companion and favorite of his lord; found displaced in debris of second room, probably originally from northern wall of second room. Poorly preserved false door inscribed for Debehen; in situ in western wall of second room of G 8090.
  • Duaenre (G 5110)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5110. Appears in chapel relief (west, south, east, and north walls [only lower legs and feet preserved in situ on west, east, and north walls], and chapel entrance north and south door jambs), and displaced fragment of lintel (MFA 34.1465), identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj(-pat) HAtj-a tAjtj sS mDAt-nTr r nxn r p nb] king's son of his body, hereditary (prince), count, vizier, scribe of the divine book, mouth of Nekhen, mouth of every Butite; in situ in G 5110. Uninscribed sarcohpagus of Duaenre (Turin S.1838, Turin S.1839); Schiaparelli excavations. Possibly same individual as Duare (in G 3098b) and/or Duaenre (in G 8172).
  • Khafre

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khufu

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Khufudjedef (Mastaba IV)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of Mastaba IV. Appears in chapel relief (south wall, and name partially preserved on fragment from elsewhere in chapel), identified as [Hrj-wDbw nswt] master of royal reversion-offerings; south wall in situ in Mastaba IV interior chapel. Red granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 53149) inscribed for Khufudjedef, identified as [sA nswt] king's son; found in situ in Mastaba IV shaft S 68 burial chamber.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8172 (Lepsius 86) and Lepsius 12. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Fragmentary entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Nebemakhet, identified as [sS mDAt(-nTr) smsw snwt n jt=f tAjtj sAb TAtj jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xt wr xt (?)] scribe of the (divine) book, elder of the snwt-house of his father, chief justice and vizier, hereditary prince, king's son of his body, chief lector-priest, khet-priest of the Great One, khet-priest of (?); found fallen in debris in front of entrance of G 8172. Originally appeared in chapel relief seated with his sister (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sS mDAt-nTr n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] scribe of the divine book of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in G 8172. Appears with his mother and sister above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [smr watj] sole companion, and with his wife on same wall, identified as [Hrj-sStA n jt=f] secretary of his father; in situ in G 8172. Originally appeared with his wife (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel; in situ in G 8172. Nebemakhet's name and titles also appear on fragments of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. Also entrance architrave, drum and jambs (very poorly preserved) originally inscribed for Nebemakhet (name partially preserved on northern door jamb), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f smr watj] hereditary prince, king's son of his body, sole companion; in situ in Lepsius 12. Also attested (main room, west wall) in tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540), and on back pillar (MFA 30.1457a) of fragmentary limestone statue of her; found in debris of forecourt of G 7530-7540.

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.