Skip to main content

Greywacke triad with figures of Menkaure, Hathor, and Hare nome goddess. [triad no. 1 = published statue no. 9]


  • ID
  • Department
    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  • Classification
  • Findspot
    Menkaure Valley Temple (MVT / corridor III 4, W side)
  • Material
  • Dimensions
    Height x width x depth: 84.5 x 43.5 x 49 cm (33 1/4 x 17 1/8 x 19 5/16 in.)
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Object Ownership Information
  • Period
    Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4, reign of Menkaure
  • Owner
  • Notes
    This object was excavated by the Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition, but was not recorded in any object register book. 1908: Excavated by the Harvard University–Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; 1909: awarded to the MFA by the government of Egypt. (Accession Date: May 17, 1909)

Tombs and Monuments 1

Published Documents 31

Full Bibliography

  • Aldred, Cyril. Egyptian Art, in the Days of the Pharaohs, 3100-320 BC. World of Art. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980, pp. 73, 75, fig. 36.

    Arnold, Dieter. "Old Kingdom Statues in their Architectural Setting." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, p. 42.

    Bolshakov, Andrey. "anx-wD.s: St. Petersburg-Cambridge." Göttinger Miszellen 188 (2002), p. 33.

    Bothmer, Bernard V. "Notes on the Mycerinus Triad." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 48, No. 271 (February 1950), pp. 11-17, figs. 1, 4-10.

    Bothmer, Bernard V. Egypt 1950: My First Visit. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2003, p. 136.

    Brovarski, Edward. "Old Kingdom Beaded Collars." In Jacke Phillips with Lanny Bell, Bruce B. Williams, James Hoch and Ronald J. Leprohon (eds.) Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, and the Near East. Studies in Honour of Martha Rhoads Bell, Volume 1. San Antonio: Van Siclen Books, 1997, p. 147, note 51.

    Capart, Jean. L'art Égyptien 2: La Statuaire. Bruxelles [etc.]: Vromant & Co., 1922, p. 16, pl. 219.

    Capart, Jean. Pour Faire Aimer L'art Égyptien. Bruxelles: Fondation égyptologique Reine Élisabeth, 1949, fig. 12.

    Cwiek, Andrzej. Relief Decoration in the Royal Funerary Complexes of the Old Kingdom: Studies in the Development, Scene Content and Iconography. Warsaw: Institute of Archaeology, Faculty of History, Warsaw University, 2003, p. 106.

    Dunham, Dows. "Portraiture in Ancient Egypt." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 41, No. 246 (December 1943), pp. 70, 72, fig. 7.

    Dunham, Dows. The Egyptian Department and its Excavations. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1958, pp. 39-40, fig. 22.

    Faulkner, Raymond O. "Review of 'Mycerinus. The Temples of the Third Pyramid at Giza'." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 19 (1933), p. 111.

    Fay, Biri. "Royal Women as Represented in Sculpture during the Old Kingdom." In Nicolas Grimal, ed. Les Critères de Datation Stylistiques à l'Ancien Empire. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 1998, pp. 164-165, 181, fig. 13a-b.

    Freed, Rita E., Lawrence M. Berman, and Denise M. Doxey. Arts of Ancient Egypt. MFA Highlights. Boston: MFA Publications, 2003, pp. 83-85.

    Friedman, Florence Dunn. "The Menkaure Dyad(s)." In Stephen E. Thompson and Peter Der Manuelian, eds. Egypt and Beyond: Essays Presented to Leonard H. Lesko upon his Retirement from the Wilbour Chair of Egyptology at Brown University June 2005. Providence: Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, 2008, pp. 121, 128-129, 131-132, 134, 136-139, 143-144, figs. 2b, 9, 10a-b, 11a, 12a, 13, 14d, 15, 17e, 20, 21b, 22b, 25a, 26.

    Friedman, Florence Dunn. "The Cultic Relationship of the Menkaure Triads to the Small Step Pyramids." In Filip Coppens, Jiři Janák, and Hana Vymazlová, eds. Royal versus Divine Authority: Acquisition, Legitimization and Renewal of Power. 7th Symposium on Egyptian Royal Ideology, Prague, June 26-28, 2013. Wiesbade: Harrassowitz, 2015, pp. 95, 98, 100, 104-106; figures 1e, 3.

    Friedman, Florence Dunn. "Economic Implications of the Menkaure Triads." In Manuelian, Peter Der, and Thomas Schneider, eds. Towards a New History for the Egyptian Old Kingdom. Harvard Egyptological Studies 1. Leiden: Brill, 2015, pp. 19-22, 28, 30-33, 36-37; figures 2.1e, 2.2d, 2.3a.

    Friedman, Florence Dunn. "The Names of Menkaure." In Kamil O. Kuraszkiewicz, Edyta Kopp, and Daniel Takács, eds. 'The Perfection that Endures... ': Studies on Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology. Warsaw: Department of Egyptology - Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Warsaw, 2018, pp.113, 130; plate XIX.2.

    Gilbert, Pierre. "Un Portrait De Mycérinus Aux Musées Royaux D'art et D'histoire À Bruxelles." Chronique d'Égypte 37, No. 74 (1962), p. 239.

    Guirand, Félix ed. Mythologie Générale. Paris: Larouse, 1935, p. 21.

    Hawass, Zahi. "A Statue of Menkaure Found in Luxor." In Eva-Maria Engel, Vera Müller & Ulrich Hartung, eds. Zeichen aus dem Sand. Streiflichter aus Ägyptens Geschichte zu Ehren von Günter Dreyer. MENES 5. Wiesbaden: Harassowitz Verlag, 2008, p. 216.

    Hawass, Zahi. "The Khufu Statuette: Is it an Old Kingdom Sculpture?" In Paule Posener-Kriéger, ed. Mélanges Gamal Eddin Mokhtar, vol. I. Cairo: Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1985, p. 387.

    Lesko, Barbara S. "Queen Khamerernebty II and Her Sculpture." In Leonard H. Lesko, ed. Ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Studies in Memory of William A. Ward, Providence: Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, Brown University, 1998, p. 161.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Excavating the Old Kingdom. The Giza Necropolis and Other Mastaba Fields." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, p. 145.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "A Race against Time in the Shadow of the Pyramids. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and the Giza Necropolis, 1902-1990." KMT 1, No. 4 (1990-91), pp. 15-17.

    Markowitz, Yvonne J., Joyce L. Haynes, and Rita E. Freed. Egypt in the Age of the Pyramids: Highlights from the Harvard University–Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Expedition. Boston: MFA Publications, 2002, pp. 56-57, cat. 5.

    Petrie, W. M. Flinders. The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. London: Histories & Mysteries of Man Ltd., 1990 (1st ed. London: Field and Tuer, 1883), p. 106.

    Reisner, George A. "The Harvard-University-Museum of Fine Arts Egyptian Expedition." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 9, No. 50 (April 1911), pp. 16-17, unnumbered figs.

    Reisner, George A. Mycerinus: The Temples of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1931, p. 109, pls. 36a, 36e, 37-40.

    Rowe, Alan. "Studies in the Archaeology of the Near East II: Some Facts Concerning the Gread Pyramids of el-Gîza and Their Royal Constructors." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 44, No. 1 (September 1961), p. 117.

    Rzepka, Slawomir. "Some Remarks on Two Mycerinus Group Statues." Göttinger Miszellen 166 (1998), pp. 78-79, 85.

    Sanborn, Ashton. "New Installation of Egyptian Sculpture." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 23, No. 140 (December 1925), p. 72.

    Schäfer, Heinrich, and Walter Andrae. Propyläen-Kunstgeschichte 2: Die Kunst des Alten Orients. 6. - 10. Tsd. ed. Berlin: Propyläen-Verlag, 1925, pl. 221.2.

    Scharff, Alexander. "On the Statuary of the Old Kingdom." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 26 (1941), p. 47.

    Sethe, Kurt. Urkunden des Alten Reichs. Erster Band. Urkunden des Ägyptischen Altertums Abteilung 1, Hft. 1-4. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1903/1933, p. 159 [9 (100) C].

    Simpson, William Kelly. "Grammar of Egyptian Statuary: The Old Kingdom." In Bettina Schmitz, ed. Festschrift Arne Eggebrecht zum 65. Geburtstag am 12. März 2000. Hildesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge 48. Hildesheim: Gerstenberg Verlag, 2002, pp. 112-113.

    Smith, William Stevenson. Ancient Egypt as Represented in the Museum of Fine Arts. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1942, pp. 43, 46, fig. 23.

    Smith, William Stevenson. A History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom. 2d ed. London: Published on behalf of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, by Oxford University Press, 1949. pp. 36, 38, pl. 13c.

    Smith, William Stevenson. Country Life in Ancient Egypt. Museum of Fine Arts Picture Book 2. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1954, p. 28, fig. 44.

    Smith, William Stevenson. Ancient Egypt as Represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1960 (6th ed.), pp. 43, 46, 48, fig. 23.

    Terrace, Edward L.B. "A Fragmentary Triad of King Mycerinus." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 59, No. 316 (1961), pp. 41-49, fig. 4.

    Unsigned. "The Dawn of Civilization in Egypt: Tracing the Culture of the Egyptians nearly to the Stone Age--Mummies Not of Ancient Origin--The Secret of the Sphinx Revealed." Science Conspectus 2, No. 3 (February 1912), p. 77.

    Vandersleyen, Claude. Das Alte Ägypten. Propyläen Kunstgeschichte 15. Berlin: Propyläen Verlag, 1975, pl. 132.

    Wood, Wendy. "A Reconstruction of the Triads of King Mycerinus." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 60 (1974), pp. 82, 85-90, pl. XXIII.2.

    Woods, Alexandra. "Contribution to a Controversy: A Date For the Tomb of kA(=j)-m-anx at Giza." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 95 (2009), p. 169, note 70.

People 1

Ancient People

  • Menkaure

    • Type Owner
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.