RemarksEgyptologist and archaeologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1905-1973) Egyptian archaeologist; he was born in the Fayum Oasis 21-May 1905, son of Ali F. and Galila Abbas; he studied at the University of Cairo; BA, 1928; frorn 1929 -32 he studied at Berlin under Sethe (q.v.),at Brussels under Capart (q.v.), and at Liverpool under Peet (q.v.); he joined the Antiquities Service in 1932 serving first under Selim Hassan (q.v.) at Giza and then at Luxor; Chief Inspector for Middle Egypt and the Oases in 1936 and Chief Inspector for the Delta in 1938; he later served as curator in the Cairo Museum and Chief Inspector of Upper Egypt, Nov. 1942- Oct. 1944; from 1937 his attention was directed to work on sites in the desert oases and from 1944-50 he served as Director of Desert Researches; in 1947 he visited Yemen and conducted an archaeological survey; from 1950-55 he was Director of Pyramid Researches excavating at the Bent Pyramid of Sneferu at Dahshur and at Shawaf, Saqqara, 1951 (see ASAE 71 (1987), 187-93; in 1952 he became Professor of the History of Ancient Egypt at Cairo University retiring in 1965; he was Visiting Professor at Brown University,1953-4, at Pennsylvania in 1966, and also at Amman and California; in 1969 he excavated tombs in the oasis of Dakhla; his principal published works were sept Tombeaux à Iest de la grande pyramids de guizeh, 1935; Recent Explorations in the Oases of the Western Desert, 1942, The Egyptian Desetis. BahRIa Oasis2 vols. 1942, 1950; The, Egyptian Deserts. Siwa Oasis, 1944; The Oasis of Siwa, 1950; The Necrepolis of El-Bagawat in Kharga Oasis' 1951; An Archaeological journey toYemen3vols., 1951-2; TheEgyptian Deserts. The Anwthyst Quarries at Wadi el Hudi', 1952; The Bent pyramid of Dahshur, 1954; The Monuments of snefru at Dahshur, Vol. I, 1959; Vol. II 2 parts 1961; The Pyramids, 1961; The Oases of Egypt Vol I, 1973 Vol. II, 1974; the notes of'his last excavation were posthumouslv edited in Denkmmaler der OaseDachla, 1982; he died in Paris, 7june 1973 Chron. g. 48 (1973), 309-10 (A. Mekhitarian); BSFE 68 (1973), 5-7 (portr.) j. Lecian t); ARCE Newsletter 86 (1973), 1-3 (D. O'Connor); The Oases of Egypt. Vol. II (1974), v-vi (J. Wilson); Denkmaler der Oase Dachla, 1982, 7 (portr.) (R. Stadelmann), II -12 (bibl.) (M. Moursi); G?tt. Misz 76 (1984), 82-3(H. Attiatalla),JEA 59 (1973), 3-5 (I. E. S. Edwards).
RemarksChanoine; L'Abbe Drioton; Egyptologist; Inspector General; Director General. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1889-1961) French Egyptologist ; born at Nancy, 21 Nov. 1889, son of Etienne D. and Félicie Maria Moitrier; he was educated at the Ecole Saint-Sigisbert, and in 1905 went on to the Séminaire at Nancy to be trained as a priest; he later became a Canon of the Church; he went to Rome in 1912, becoming a Doctor of Philosophy at the St. Thomas Academy and in 1913 received a Doctorate in Theology at the Gregorian University; at this period he was mainly interested in Hebrew and Bible studies; he became a Lic. in Biblical Sciences of the pontifical Commission; his interest now turned to Oriental studies and in 1918 he gained the Diploma of the Ecole Libre des Langues orientales at the Catholic Institute of Paris, taking Egyptian and Coptic as his subjects; he had been interested in ancient Egypt from the age of eleven and he took Egyptian grammar lessons by correspondence with Bénédite (q.v.); in 1919 he was appointed Professor of Egyptian philology and Coptic language at the Catholic Institute in succession to Virey (q.v.); for his students he now produced a handy Cours de Grammaire égyptienne, a work praised by F. Ll. Griffith (q.v.) in JEA, and the first teaching grammar other than translations of Erman's Aeg. Grammatik that had been written in France for many years; Drioton worked as Assistant Keeper with Boreux (q.v.) at the Louvre from 1926, and from 1925 he undertook the epigraphic survey at the Medamud excavations of the Institut Francais directed by Bisson de la Roque (q.v.), publishing afterwards two volumes of inscriptions; he now showed his interest in the reading of Ptolemaic texts; he also at this period worked on cryptographic writings and published several articles on this subject which were to become classics; in 1936 he was appointed Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service succeeding Lacau (q.v.), and filled this position for sixteen years; this was also an immensely productive period of his life as he published scores of articles and reviews; he also found time to give courses at the Institute of Egyptology of the University of Cairo and helped to train many young Egyptians in Egyptology ; he was appointed Director, 1952, at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Professor at the Collège de France, 1957; he gained many awards and decorations from different countries including Egypt and Iran, and was an Officer of the Légion d'Honneur; his specialities were religious subjects, Egyptian monotheism, and maxims and morals written on scarabs; "Essai sur la cryptographie privée de la fin de la XVIII dynastie" (1933) and "Recueil de cryptographie monumentale" (1940) were among his most important works in this field, exhibiting notable insight. Ancient Egyptian religious mystery plays also interested him and he showed the existence in ancient Egypt of a profane as well as sacred theatre, whose subjects like those of the Greeks were derived from mythology although not liturgical; painting of the Coptic period also fascinated him, as well as the 'Teaching of Amenemope' and its relationship with the Biblical book of Proverbs; on his return to France Drioton was made a member of the Conseil Artistique for Museums; he had an easy and fluent style which made his books and articles very readable; his bibliography up to 1955 numbered 287 items in all; his mongraphs included Introduction a l'étude des hiéroglyphes, with H. Sottas; with Marcelle Baud he produced two vols. on the Theban tombs, Le Tombeau de Roy, 1928, Le Tombeau de Panehesy, 1932; also Le Drame sacré dans I'antique Egypte, 1929; Une Scène des mystères D'horus, 1929; Ce que l'on sait du théâtre égyptien; Le Théâtre égyptien, 1942; Procédé acrophonique et principe consonantal, 1943-, An explanation of the enigmatical inscriptions on the Serapeum plaques of PtoLemy IV, 1946; L'Egypte, with j. Vandier, 1946; La Religion égyptienne, 1955; Maximes morales sur des scarabées égyptiens, 1957; Sur la sagesse d 'Aménémopé, 1957; Le Livre des proverbes et la sagesse d' Aménémopé, 1959; Egypte pharaonique, 1959; Boiseries coptes de style pharaonique, 1960; he died in Montgeron, 17 Jan. 1961 AFO 20 (1963), 308-9 (portr.)( J. Leclant); L'Ami du clergé, Langres 71 (1961), 295-6 (L. Christiani); BIFAO 61 (1962), 1-6 (portr.) (F. Daumas); BSAC 16 (1961-2), 335-7 (Sami Gabra), 337-42 (P. du Bourguet); BSFE 32 (Dec. 1961), 31-4( J. Sainte Fare Garnot); Bulletin de la Faculté des Lettres de Strasbourg, 40th year, no. 2 (Nov. 1961), 163-7 (portr.)( J. Leclant); Chron. D'Eg. 36 (1961), 175-8 (B. van de Walle) ibid. no 73 (1962), 5-7 (P. Gilbert); CRAIBL 1961, 24-5 (P. Chantraine), 106-7 (C. Schaeffer); La Croix, Paris, 27 Jan. 1961 (P. du Bourguet); Ecclesia, Paris, no. 145 (Apr. 1961), 123-30 (5 iilus.) (M. Colinon); Encielopedia Pomba, Turin, vol. ii (I 962), 353 (F. jesi);.Etudes, Paris, 94th year, vol. 309 (Apr. 1961), 73-84 (P. du Bourguet)); JEA 47 (1961). 4(J.Cerny); journal de Genève, 20jan. 1961, 2 (C. Maystre); Le Monde, Paris, I Feb. 1961 (no. 4988), 8 (G. Wiet); Nauvelles de l'Institut Catholique de Paris, 12, no. 3 (Feb-Mar. 1961), 17-22 (2 illus.) (P. du Bourguet); Rev. Arch. 1961, ii. 83-5 (J. Sainte Fare Garnot); ibid. 1962, i. 97 (Ch. Picard); La Revue du Gaire, vol. xlvi, no. 246 (Feb. 1961), 173-4 (A. Papadopoulo); Rev. d'ég- 13 (I 961), 9-18 (portr.)( J. Vandier); ;ZAS 87 (1962) pp. i-ii (portr.)( J. Vandier); BIFAO 56 (1957), 1-18 (bibl.)( J.Jacquiot); BSFE 116 (1989) 5-7 (J. Vercoutter).
RemarksEgyptologist, Director of German-Austrian expedition to Giza, 1911–1929. Published 12 volumes of final excavation reports from Giza expedition. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
RemarksDiary translator. Son of Said Ahmed Said [Diraz] (Head Reis 1908-1926). Brother of Mohammed Said Ahmed (Head Reis 1936-1939). Family name, Diraz, was supplied by Said Ahmed Said's grandsons in 2006.
RemarksHead Reis for the Harvard-MFA expedition, 1936–1939. Son of Said Ahmed Said [Diraz] (Head Reis 1908-1926) and brother of Mahmoud Said Ahmed [Diraz] (Translator) and Ahmed Said Ahmed [Diraz]. Family name, Diraz, was supplied by Said Ahmed Said's grandsons in 2006.
RemarksEgyptologist; Sub Director General. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1886-1961) Egyptian Egyptologist; born Mit-Nagi, 15 April 1886, he studied at the Higher Teacher's College, Cairo under Kamal (q.v.); in 1912 he became a teacher and in 1921 obtained a post in the Egyptian Museum as assistant keeper; he studied in Paris 1923-7 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes; he was the first Egyptian to be appointed as a Professor of Egyptology in the Universitv of Cairo, 1928 - 36; he was later made Deputy Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service responsible for the care of all monuments in the Nile valley, 1936-39; Ph.D. Vienna University, 1935; stimulated by the archaeological work of P. E. Newberry (q.v.) and Junker (q.v.)he began an active career in excavations with the clearance of some of the Giza mastabas in 1929; the excavations carried on by him in this necropolis continued until 1939 by which time a great deal of digging had been achieved, published in 10 parts; he also cleared the Sphinx and its temple, for the first time completely digging out the great amphitheatre around it and ensuring that it would not be buried by send again so easily; he wrote a study on this work and on the temple of Amenhotep II here; in addition the so-called Fourth Pyramid or the palace-façade tomb of Queen Khent-kawes of the Fourth Dynasty was investigated and also the funerary town of the priests associated with it; he later worked on the Unas causeway at Saqqara and at the valley temple of this king, discovering some of the mastabas in this area and two great subterranean tombs dated to the Second Dynasty; his final excavations at Giza were carried out on the east and south faces of the Great Pyramid and at the mortuary temple of King Khufu, 1938-9; he also took part in the campaign to save the monments of Nubia, and wrote a report on this subject; he published about 53 books and articles on Egyptological subjects in English, French, and Arabic, Hymnes religieux du Moyen Empire, 1928; Le Poème dit de Pentaour et Le rapport officiel sur la bataiILe de Qadesh , 1929; Excavations at Giza, 10 pts., 1929-60; The Sphinx. Its History in the Light of recent Excavations, 1949; Report on the Monunents of Nubia,1955Excavations at Saqqara 1937-8, 3 vols., 1975; in Arabic Literature of Ancient Egpt, 2 vols.; Ancient Egypt from Prehistoric Times to the Age of Rameses 11, 6 vols.; he died in Giza, 30 Sept. 1961. AfO 20 (1963), 310 (H. Brunner); Archaeology 14, no, 4 (1961, 293; ASAE 58 (1964), 61- 84 (bibl.) (Dia Abou-Ghazi); Orientalia 31 (1962), 271; Goettinger Miszellen 76 (1984), 78-80; Reid, JAOS 105 (1985), 237, 241-44.