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  • Format
  • Language
  • Series
    Bibliothèque d'Étude
  • Year Published
  • Number of Pages
  • Citation Text
    Fay, Biri. "Royal Women as Represented in Sculpture during the Old Kingdom." In Nicolas Grimal, ed. Les Critères de Datation Stylistiques à l'Ancien Empire. Bibliothèque d'Étude 120. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 1998, pp. 159-186.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)
    Khamerernebty [II] (G 8978 & G III-a)
    Khufukhaf [I] (G 7130-7140)
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)
  • Individual - Modern
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
  • Editor
    Nicolas Grimal, French
  • Publisher
    Institut Français d'Archéolgie Orientale
  • Author
    Biri Fay

Finds 22

People 11

Ancient People

  • Djedefre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 4. Son (?) of Khufu.
  • Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Original owner of G 7110, along with Kawab (owner of G 7120). Appears with her daughter Meresankh III in G 7530-7540 (east and west walls, main room), and in pair statue MFA 30.1456 (= 27-4-963 + 27-4-964 + 27-4-965). Later married to a king, possibly Djedefre (Radjedef) according to Reisner, but Khafre is also a possibility. Her association with G 7350, and its sarcophagus is uncertain. Also mentioned in tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Khamerernebty [II] (G 8978 & G III-a)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Menkaure, daughter of Khafre and Khamerernebty [I]. Identified on entrance lintel as [sAt nswt nt Xt=f Hmt nswt mAAt Hr StX] king's daughter of his body, king's wife, seer of Horus and Seth; found above entrance to G 8978, possibly not in situ. Two uninscribed statues: one fragmentary wearing pleated robe (JE 48828), the other seated (JE 48856), probably represent Khamerernebty II (or possibly her mother Khamerernebty I); JE 48828 found in serdab ("room B") of G 8978, JE 48856 found in pillared outer hall ("room C") of G 8978. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Khuenre (owner of MQ 1). Appears in chapel relief, south wall (seated before her son), identified as [mAAt Hr StX wrt Hts xrpt sSmtjw SnDt Hmt nswt sAt nswt smswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, directress of the butchers of the "Acacia House," king's wife, king's eldest daughter; in situ in Menkaure quarry cemetery MQ 1 = MQ 137. Also mentioned on entrance lintel of Washptah (owner of G 8976), identified as [sAt smswt nswt nt Xt=f mAAt Hr StX wrt Hts Hmt nswt] king's eldest daughter of his body, seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, king's wife; in situ in G 8976.
  • Khufukhaf [I] (G 7130-7140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Khufu and probably Henutsen. He is buried in G 7140.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8172 (Lepsius 86) and Lepsius 12. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Fragmentary entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Nebemakhet, identified as [sS mDAt(-nTr) smsw snwt n jt=f tAjtj sAb TAtj jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xt wr xt (?)] scribe of the (divine) book, elder of the snwt-house of his father, chief justice and vizier, hereditary prince, king's son of his body, chief lector-priest, khet-priest of the Great One, khet-priest of (?); found fallen in debris in front of entrance of G 8172. Originally appeared in chapel relief seated with his sister (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sS mDAt-nTr n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] scribe of the divine book of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in G 8172. Appears with his mother and sister above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [smr watj] sole companion, and with his wife on same wall, identified as [Hrj-sStA n jt=f] secretary of his father; in situ in G 8172. Originally appeared with his wife (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel; in situ in G 8172. Nebemakhet's name and titles also appear on fragments of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. Also entrance architrave, drum and jambs (very poorly preserved) originally inscribed for Nebemakhet (name partially preserved on northern door jamb), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f smr watj] hereditary prince, king's son of his body, sole companion; in situ in Lepsius 12. Also attested (main room, west wall) in tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540), and on back pillar (MFA 30.1457a) of fragmentary limestone statue of her; found in debris of forecourt of G 7530-7540.
  • Snefru

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks First king of Dynasty 4. Father of Khufu.

Modern People

  • Biri Fay

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates
  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Nicolas Grimal

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates French

Institutions 1