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Two fitting fragments of figure of Hetepheres II, lower part (part of lower legs, feet partly missing), part of small limestone pair statue; belongs with 27-4-963 and 27-4-965 (pair statue: two figures – Meresankh III and Hetepheres II – standing side by side on one base, left arm of Hetepheres around neck of Meresankh; restored by William Young 1935). Illustration: Yes. Illustration scale: ca 3:4


  • ID
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Classification
  • Findspot
    Mastaba G 7530-7540: G 7530, room a
  • Material
  • Dimensions
    Height: first fragment: 12 cm; second fragment: 3.5 cm Width: first fragment: 11 cm; second fragment: 7.5 cm Length: second fragment: 13.2 cm Thickness: first fragment: 9 cm
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Object Ownership Information
    MFA accession number: 30.1456
  • Date of Register Entry
  • Attested
    Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)
  • Owner
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
  • Individual - Modern
    William Young, American
  • Remarks
    27-4-963 + 27-4-964 + 27-4-965 = MFAB_30.1456
  • Problems/Questions
    MFA accession number verified

Tombs and Monuments 1

Published Documents 13

Unpublished Documents 4

Full Bibliography

  • "Actes du colloque sur l'art de l'ancien empire." Cairo (?), 1992.

    Capart, Jean. L'art égyptien II: La Statuaire. Bruxelles: Vromant & Co., 1922, p. 22, pl. 259.

    Capel, Anne K., and Glenn Markoe, eds. Mistress of the House, Mistress of Heaven: Women in Ancient Egypt. 1st ed. New York: Hudson Hills Press in association with Cincinnati Art Museum: [Lanham, MD], 1996, p. 103, cat. 37.

    Cott, Perry Blythe. "An Egyptian Sculpture of the Fourth Dynasty." The Worcester Art Museum Annual 1 (1935-1936), p. 18, fig. 3.

    Dunham, Dows. "A Statuette of Two Egyptian Queens." Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 34, No. 201 (1936), pp. 3-5.

    Dunham, Dows. The Egyptian Department and its Excavations. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1958, pp. 41, 43, fig. 25.

    Dunham, Dows, and William Kelly Simpson. The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III (G 7530-7540). Giza Mastabas 1. Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, 1974, pp. 8, 23, pl. 17a-b.

    Fay, Biri. "Royal Women as Represented in Sculpture during the Old Kingdom. Part II: Uninscribed Sculptures." In Christiane Ziegler, ed. L'art de l'ancien empire égyptien. Paris: Musée du Louvre, 1999, pp. 106, 135, fig. 24.

    Fay, Biri. "Royal Women as Represented in Sculpture dunring the Old Kingdom." In Nicolas Grimal, ed. Les Critères de Datation Stylistiques à l'Ancien Empire. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, 1998, pp. 162, 176, fig. 7.

    Freed, Rita E. "Rethiking the Rules for Old Kingdom Sculpture. Observations on Poses and Attributes of Limestone Statuary from Giza." In Miroslav Bárta, ed. The Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology. Proceedings of the Conference held in Prague, May 31-June 4, 2004. Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology, 2006, p. 151.

    Hennessy, Dianne. Studies in Ancient Egypt. South Melbourne: Nelson, 1992.

    Markowitz, Yvonne J., Joyce L. Haynes, and Rita E. Freed. Egypt in the Age of the Pyramids: Highlights from the Harvard University–Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Expedition. Boston: MFA Publications, 2002, p. 44, fig. 32.

    Rössler-Köhler, Ursula. "Die Rundplastische Gruppe der Frau Pepi und des Mannes Ra-Schepses. (Bemerkungen zur Ikonographie von Familiendarstellungen des alten Reiches)." Mitteilungen des Deutschen Instituts für ägyptische Altertumskunde in Kairo 45 (1989), p. 270, pl. 34c.

    Scharff, Alexander. "On the Statuary of the Old Kingdom." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 26 (1941), p. 48.

    Simpson, William Kelly. "Grammar of Egyptian Statuary: The Old Kingdom." In Bettina Schmitz, ed. Festschrift Arne Eggebrecht zum 65. Geburtstag am 12. März 2000. Hildesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge 48. Hildesheim: Gerstenberg Verlag, 2002, p. 108, fig. 1.

    Simpson, William Kelly. The Mastabas of Kawab, Khafkhufu I and II. Giza Mastabas 3. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1978, p. 4, fig. 72.

    Smith, William Stevenson. Ancient Egypt as Represented in the Museum of Fine Arts. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1942, p. 45.

    Smith, William Stevenson. Ancient Egypt as Represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1960 (6th ed.), p. 51.

    Wenig, Steffen. Die Frau Im Alten Ägypten: Das Bild der Frau. Leipzig: Edition Leipzig, 1967. pl. 8.

People 3

Ancient People

  • Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Original owner of G 7110, along with Kawab (owner of G 7120). Appears with her daughter Meresankh III in G 7530-7540 (east and west walls, main room), and in pair statue MFA 30.1456 (= 27-4-963 + 27-4-964 + 27-4-965). Later married to a king, possibly Djedefre (Radjedef) according to Reisner, but Khafre is also a possibility. Her association with G 7350, and its sarcophagus is uncertain. Also mentioned in tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Owner
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).

Modern People

  • William Young

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American
    • Remarks Founded Museum of Fine Arts' Objects Conservation and Scientific Research Laboratory in 1929, remaining director until his retirement in 1976.