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Details

  • Format
    Article
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Year Published
    2008
  • Citation Text
    Friedman, Florence Dunn. "The Menkaure Dyad(s)." In Stephen E. Thompson and Peter Der Manuelian, eds. Egypt and Beyond: Essays Presented to Leonard H. Lesko upon his Retirement from the Wilbour Chair of Egyptology at Brown University June 2005. Providence: Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, 2008, pp. 109-144.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Djedefre
    Djoser
    Hetepheres (in G 8988)
    Khafre
    Khamerernebty [II] (G 8978 & G III-a)
    Khamerernebty [I] (in G 8978)
    Khufu
    Khufukhaf [I] (G 7130-7140)
    Menkaure
    Nimaatre (G 8900)
    Rawer (G 8988)
  • Publisher
    Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, Brown University
  • Editor
    Peter Der Manuelian, 1959–
    Stephen E. Thompson, American
  • Author
    Florence Friedman, American
  • Individual - Modern
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942

Tombs and Monuments 2

Finds 14

People 15

Ancient People

  • Djedefre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 4. Son (?) of Khufu.
  • Djoser

    • Type Individual - Ancient
  • Hetepheres (in G 8988)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Itisen and mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Rawer (owner of G 8988). Appears in family group statue of Rawer and in tomb relief (eastern wall of vestibule) standing before her son, identified in both places as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 8988. Also probable owner of broken standing statue (WAM_1934.48); possibly from G 8988.
  • Khafre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khamerernebty [II] (G 8978 & G III-a)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Menkaure, daughter of Khafre and Khamerernebty [I]. Identified on entrance lintel as [sAt nswt nt Xt=f Hmt nswt mAAt Hr StX] king's daughter of his body, king's wife, seer of Horus and Seth; found above entrance to G 8978, possibly not in situ. Two uninscribed statues: one fragmentary wearing pleated robe (JE 48828), the other seated (JE 48856), probably represent Khamerernebty II (or possibly her mother Khamerernebty I); JE 48828 found in serdab ("room B") of G 8978, JE 48856 found in pillared outer hall ("room C") of G 8978. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Khuenre (owner of MQ 1). Appears in chapel relief, south wall (seated before her son), identified as [mAAt Hr StX wrt Hts xrpt sSmtjw SnDt Hmt nswt sAt nswt smswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, directress of the butchers of the "Acacia House," king's wife, king's eldest daughter; in situ in Menkaure quarry cemetery MQ 1 = MQ 137. Also mentioned on entrance lintel of Washptah (owner of G 8976), identified as [sAt smswt nswt nt Xt=f mAAt Hr StX wrt Hts Hmt nswt] king's eldest daughter of his body, seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, king's wife; in situ in G 8976.
  • Khamerernebty [I] (in G 8978)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Mother of Khamerernebty [II] and Menkaure and wife of Khafre (Chephren). Identified on entrance lintel as [mwt nswt-bjtj sAt nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] mother of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god; found above entrance to G 8978, possibly not in situ.
  • Khufu

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Khufukhaf [I] (G 7130-7140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Khufu and probably Henutsen. He is buried in G 7140.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Nimaatre (G 8900)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Co-owner (with Neferesris) of G 8900. Chapel entrance architrave, door jambs and reveals inscribed for Nimaatre, identified as [jmj-r Hst pr-aA xrp tjs bjtj jmj-r sxmx-jb nb nfr m Xnw StAw pr-aA] overseer of singing in the Great House, director of companions(?) of the king of Lower Egypt, overseer of every good entertainment in the secret interior of the Great House; in situ in south chapel of G 8900. Interior chapel architrave and pillars inscribed for Nimaatre, identified as [jmj-r sxmx-jb nb nfr stp-sA Xr(-tp) st nswt smr-pr Hrj-sStA jmj-jb n nb=f ra nb] overseer of every good entertainment, bodyguard of the throne of the king, companion of the house, secretary, he who is in the heart of his lord every day; in situ in south chapel of G 8900. False door and lintel inscribed for Nimaatre, identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr ra m Sspjbra wab mnswt-njwsrra] royal wab-priest, pnest of Re in the sun-temple of Niuserre, wab-priest of the pyramid of Niuserre; also appears in damaged chapel relief (southern, eastern and western walls); in situ in south chapel of G 8900.
  • Rawer (G 8988)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8988. Son of Itisen and Hetepheres. Entrance architrave, lintel and facade inscribed for Rawer, identified as [smr watj Hrj-tp nxb Hm-nTr Hr-jnpw xntj pr Smswt watj aD-mr Hr sbA xntj pt sm xrp SnDt xt mnw xrp aH Hrj-sStA n pr(-dwAt) Xrj-Hb wa m wrw Hb xrp Hwwt nt mw aD-mr dp Hm-nTr wADt jrj nfr-HAt] sole companion, chief of Nekheb, priest of Horus-Anubis who presides solely over the suite, administrator of the district 'Star-of-Horus-Foremost-of-Heaven', sem-priest, director of the kilt, khet-priest of Min, director of the palace, secretary of the House (of Morning), lector-priest, sole one of the great ones of the festival, director of mansions of mu-textiles(?), administrator of Dep, priest of Wadjet, keeper of the diadem; facade in situ, lintel and architrave fallen in front of entrance to G 8988. Inner door jambs inscribed for Rawer, identified as [jmj-r Xkrw nswt n jswj overseer of the king's ornaments in the two chambers; in situ in G 8988. Inscription along top of eastern wall of serdab 14 with titles [Hm-nTr nxbt Hm-ntr wADt smr watj n(j) mrwt] priest of Nekhbet, priest of Wadjet, sole companion, possessor of love; in situ in G 8988. Rawer appears on alabaster panel (JE 66626) in niche 14, identified as [Hrj-sStA n mdw-nTr] secretary of the sacred writings; in situ in G 8988. Inscribed limestone slab with title [Hm-nTr wADt p dp] priest of Wadjet in Pe and Dep; found displaced in G 8988. Inscribed limestone slab with title [jmj-r wabt] overseer of the wabet; found fallen from wall of first chamber of eastern passage in G 8988. Life-size limestone statue of Rawer, inscribed [jrj nfr-HAt (smsw?) wxrt aAt jr Sn nswt] keeper of the diadem, (elder?) of the great shipyard, royal hairdresser; found in back of second chamber of eastern passage in G 8988. Life-size limestone statue of Rawer, inscribed [jmj-jb n nb=f Hrj-sStA n nswt] he who is in the heart of his lord, secretary of the king; found in situ in serdab 12 of G 8988, along with limestone relief of biographical inscription (JE 66682). A large number of other inscribed statues and fragments of Rawer and his family found throughout G 8988 (including JE 66615, a quartzite "pseudo-group" statue of Rawer, and JE 66625, a limestone statue head of Rawer).

Modern People

  • Florence Friedman

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American
  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Peter Der Manuelian

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates 1959–
    • Remarks Giza Archives Project Director, 2000-2011; Giza Project at Harvard Director, 2011-present.
  • Stephen E. Thompson

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates American

Institutions 1