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Details

  • Format
    Bulletin
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Year Published
    1961
  • Citation Text
    Rowe, Alan. "Studies in the Archaeology of the Near East II: Some Facts Concerning the Great Pyramids of el-Gîza and Their Royal Constructors." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 44, No. 1 (September 1961), pp. 100-118.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Debehen (G 8090)
    Djedefre
    Henutsen (G I-c)
    Hetepheres I (G 7000 X)
    Hinefer
    Idu [II] (Idu [II])
    Isesi
    Khafre
    Khamerernebty [II] (G 8978 & G III-a)
    Khamerernebty [I] (in G 8978)
    Khentkaus [I] (G 8400)
    Khufu
    May
    Menkaure
    Meretites I
    Nedjem
    Neferherenptah (Neferherenptah 2)
    Pepi I
    Pepi II
    Qar (G 7101)
    Senedjemib Inti (G 2370)
    Shepseskaf
    Snefru
    Unas
    Userkaf
    Abutiu (in G 2188)
  • Individual - Modern
    Dows Dunham, American, 1890–1984
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
    J. H. Cole
    James Henry Breasted, American, 1865–1935
    Sir William Flinders Petrie, British, 1853–1942
  • Author
    Alan Jenvey Rowe, British, 1890–1968
  • Publisher
    John Rylands Library

Finds 3

People 31

Ancient People

  • Debehen (G 8090)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8090. Chapel entrance architrave, drum and door reveals inscribed for Debehen, identified as [smr watj jmj-jb nb=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt jrj nfr-HAt sXkr Hr Hrj-wDbw m Hwt-anx xrp aH aD-mr Hr sbAw xntj pt jmj-r swt Spswt nt pr-aA mrjj nb=f] sole companion, who is in the heart of his lord, chief lector-priest, secretary of the House of Morning, keeper of the headdress, adorner of Horus, master of reversions-offerings in the Mansion of Life, director of the palace, administrator of the district 'Star-of-Horus-Foremost-of-Heaven', overseer of august places of the Great House, beloved of his lord; in situ in G 8090. Appears in chapel relief (seated on north wall), identified as [smr jr mrrt nb=f] companion, one who does what his lord loves; in situ in G 8090. Eastern jamb of entrance to second (northern) room inscribed for Debehen, identified as [Hrj-tp nxb] overlord of El-Kab; in situ in G 8090. Southern wall of second room inscribed for Debehen, identified as [nswt ... jmj-jb n nTr=f mrr nb=f mrj...] royal ..., who is in the heart of his god, beloved of his lord, who is beloved...; first half in situ in G 8090, second on slab found displaced in debris of second room. A number of fragmentary limestone slabs are inscribed with the name and titles of Debehen, identified as [(Hrj-sS)tA n nswt smr n jb nb=f] royal (secretary), companion and favorite of his lord; found displaced in debris of second room, probably originally from northern wall of second room. Poorly preserved false door inscribed for Debehen; in situ in western wall of second room of G 8090.
  • Djedefre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 4. Son (?) of Khufu.
  • Henutsen (G I-c)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Khufu.
  • Hetepheres I (G 7000 X)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of King Snefru, founder of Egypt’s Fourth Dynasty, and mother of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid. Her burial was hidden in a secret chamber (labeled G 7000 X) nearly 90 feet underground, and contained beautiful pieces of gilded and inlaid wooden furniture, silver jewelry, and a large alabaster sarcophagus that was found to be mysteriously empty.
  • Hinefer

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Standing statue (Manchester University Museum 4171) inscribed for Hinefer, identified as [jr js] tomb-maker; provenance unknown. [See Rowe, Bulletin 44.1, p. 105; Petrie, Gizeh and Rifeh, pl. VIIb]
  • Idu [II] (Idu [II])

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Idu [II] (unnumbered mastaba excavated by Junker). Wood coffin (Hildesheim 2511) inscribed for Idu, identified as [Xrj-tp nswt pr-aA sHD sSw a nswt sS a nswt xft-Hr jmj-r pr-aS] royal chamberlain of the Great House, inspector of royal document scribes, royal document scribe in the presence, overseer of the House of Cedar; found in situ in mastaba of Idu [II], shaft S 790, burial chamber.
  • Isesi

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks King of Dynasty 5. Horus name: [Dd-xaw] Djedkhau; other names: [Dd-kA-ra] Djedkare, [jssj] Isesi
  • Khafre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khamerernebty [II] (G 8978 & G III-a)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Menkaure, daughter of Khafre and Khamerernebty [I]. Identified on entrance lintel as [sAt nswt nt Xt=f Hmt nswt mAAt Hr StX] king's daughter of his body, king's wife, seer of Horus and Seth; found above entrance to G 8978, possibly not in situ. Two uninscribed statues: one fragmentary wearing pleated robe (JE 48828), the other seated (JE 48856), probably represent Khamerernebty II (or possibly her mother Khamerernebty I); JE 48828 found in serdab ("room B") of G 8978, JE 48856 found in pillared outer hall ("room C") of G 8978. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Khuenre (owner of MQ 1). Appears in chapel relief, south wall (seated before her son), identified as [mAAt Hr StX wrt Hts xrpt sSmtjw SnDt Hmt nswt sAt nswt smswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, directress of the butchers of the "Acacia House," king's wife, king's eldest daughter; in situ in Menkaure quarry cemetery MQ 1 = MQ 137. Also mentioned on entrance lintel of Washptah (owner of G 8976), identified as [sAt smswt nswt nt Xt=f mAAt Hr StX wrt Hts Hmt nswt] king's eldest daughter of his body, seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, king's wife; in situ in G 8976.
  • Khamerernebty [I] (in G 8978)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Mother of Khamerernebty [II] and Menkaure and wife of Khafre (Chephren). Identified on entrance lintel as [mwt nswt-bjtj sAt nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] mother of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god; found above entrance to G 8978, possibly not in situ.
  • Khentkaus [I] (G 8400)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8400. Possible daughter of Menkaure. Chapel entrance door jambs and fragments of false door inscribed for Khentkaus, identified as [mwt nswt-bjtj nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] mother of the two kings of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god; in situ in G 8400. Alternately the titles may read [nswt-bjtj mwt nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] king of Upper and Lower Egypt, mother of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god.
  • Khufu

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • May

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Overseer of works under Ramses II, active at Giza in Dynasty 19.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Meretites I

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Khufu and mother of Kawab (G 7120), Meresankh [II] (G 7410) and Meretites (G 7650). Appeared with her son on west wall of G 7120 chapel room b (tomb of Kawab), three fragments (24-12-1000, 24-12-1002 and possibly 24-12-1122) may belong to this scene; fragments found displaced in G 7120 chapel rooms c and d and space in between.
  • Nedjem

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Offering basin (Manchester University Museum 4355) inscribed for Nedjem, identified as [rx nswt sHD qd] royal acquaintance, inspector of builders; provenance unknown. [See Rowe, Bulletin 44.1, p. 105; Petrie, Gizeh and Rifeh, pl. VIId]
  • Neferherenptah (Neferherenptah 2)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Neferherenptah (2) (unnumbered rock-cut tomb). Lintel and drum lintel (Manchester University Museum 4612 and 4617) inscribed for Neferherenptah, lintel inscribed [xtmw nswt Snwt nfrHrnptH Hmt=f nfrt msw=f sHD mDAt jmgsj xwt k[A]mrdwj kkj] royal sealer of the granary Neferherenptah, his wife Nefret, his children: inspector of letters Imgesi, Khuit, Kaemredwy and Keki, drum inscribed with [Htp dj nswt] offering formula for Neferherenptah; originally over entrance to tomb of Neferherenptah (2), found by W.M.F. Petrie (see Rowe, Bulletin 44.1, p. 105; Petrie, Gizeh and Rifeh, pp. 8-9, pl. VIIa).
  • Pepi I

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 6.
  • Pepi II

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 6. Horus name: [nTr-xaw] Netjerkhau; other names: [nfr-kA-ra] Neferkare, [pjpj] Pepi
  • Qar (G 7101)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7101. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, pillar), identified variously as [jmj-r kAt nbt xntj-S mnnfr-mrjjra Xrj tp nswt sS a nswt xft-Hr mAa] overseer of all works, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Meryre (Pepi I), he who is at the head of the king, true royal document scribe in the presence; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Qar (in G 7102), son of Idu (owner of G 7102). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.
  • Senedjemib Inti (G 2370)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2370. Senedjemib, [rn=f nfr] his good name Inti. Father of Senedjemib Mehi (owner of G 2378) and Khnumenti (owner of G 2374). Appears in chapel relief (throughout chapel), architectural elements (including portico facade, door jambs and displaced portico architrave) and false door inscribed for Senedjemib Inti, identified as [xrp sSw nbw Xrj-tp nswt jmj-r Snwtj jmj-r pr-aHAw mDH qd nswt m prwj jmj-r prwj-HD jmj-r jswj Xkr nswt jmj-r st nbt nt Xnw jmj-r prw msw nswt jmj-r Xkr nswt jmj-r Hwt-wrt sjsw jmj-r sDmt nbt jrj-pat HAtj-a tAjtj sAb TAtj jmj-r kAt nbt nt nswt jmj-r sSw a nswt Hrj-sStA wDt-mdw nbt nt nswt Hrj-Xb smr watj] controller of all scribes, royal chamberlain, overseer of the two granaries, overseer of the armory, royal architect in the two houses, overseer of the two treasuries, overseer of the two chambers of royal regalia, overseer of every department of the Residence, overseer of the houses of the royal children, overseer of royal regalia, overseer of the six great law-courts, overseer of all that is judged, hereditary prince, count, chief justice and vizier, overseer of all royal works, overseer of royal document scribes, secretary of every royal decree, lector-priest, sole companion; in situ in G 2370. Limestone sarcophagus inscribed for Senedjemib Inti, identified as [HAtj-a mAa jntj tAjtj sAb TAtj snDmjb Xrj-tp nswt jntj] true count Inti, chief justice and vizier Senedjemib, royal chamberlain Inti; in situ in burial chamber of G 2370 B. Possibly same individual as owner of Lepsius 10 (in Khafre Quarry). Similar titles found on entrance lintel of Lepsius 10, inscribed for Senedjemib Inti. Probably same individual whose name appears on fragmentary limestone architrave (35-9-17 = MFA 35.2033) inscribed for Tjetu; found displaced in G 2338 B (possibly originally from G 2343 = G 5511).
  • Shepseskaf

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Last king of Dynasty 4. Son of Menkaure. Horus name: [SpsXt] Shepseskhet.
  • Snefru

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks First king of Dynasty 4. Father of Khufu.
  • Unas

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Last king of Dynasty 5. Horus name: [wAD-tAwj]; other names: [wnjs] Unis
  • Userkaf

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks First king of Dynasty 5. Horus name: [jrjmAat] Irymaat.

Modern People

  • Alan Jenvey Rowe

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates British, 1890–1968
    • Remarks Egyptologist and archaeologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Dows Dunham

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1890–1984
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Curator; Assistant Curator, Egyptian Department, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • J. H. Cole

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates
    • Remarks American engineer who surveyed Khufu's pyramid and published the measurements in 1925 in his "Determination of the Exact Size and Orientation of the Great Pyramid."
  • James Henry Breasted

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1865–1935
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Father of Mr. Charles Breasted; Visitor from Chicago. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Sir William Flinders Petrie

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates British, 1853–1942
    • Remarks Father of British Egyptology.

Institutions 1

Animals 1