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*The original, paper version of this page in “Chapter 16: The Royal Family of Dynasty Four” can be found in archival box L01 in the Egyptian Section archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Details

  • Classification
    Documentation-Unpublished manuscripts
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Date
    about 1934—1942
  • Mentioned on page
    Hermann Junker, German, 1877–1962
    Selim Hassan (Bey), Egyptian, 1886–1961
    Ankh-haf (G 7510)
    Babaef (G 5230)
    Bauefre (G 7310-7320)
    Djedefre
    Hemetre (G 8464)
    Hemiunu (G 4000)
    Iuenmin (G 8080)
    Iuenre (G 8466)
    Kawab (G 7110-7120)
    Khafre
    Khufu
    Minkhaf (G 7430-7440)
    Nefermaat (G 7060)
    Nefretkau (G 7050)
    Nikaure (G 8158)
    Sekhemkare (G 8154)
    Seshathetep Heti (G 5150)
    Seshemnefer [III] (G 5170)
    Seshemnefer [II] (G 5080)
    Seshemnefer [I] (G 4940)
    Snefru
  • Author
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942

Tombs and Monuments 12

  • G 4000

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 5080

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 5150

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 5170

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 5230

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 7060

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 7310-7320

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 7430-7440

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 7510

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 8080

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8154

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • G 8158

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)

Photos 1

People 24

Ancient People

  • Ankh-haf (G 7510)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7510. Husband of Hetepheres.
  • Babaef (G 5230)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5230. Name translated as either Khnumbaef or Babaef, identified variously as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj-pat HAtj-a smr watj jmj-r kAt nb nswt xrp aH tAjtj sAb TAtj Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp Hm-nTr Hr THnw qA-a wr idt Hm st Hm jAqs Hm Hpwj (Hm) Hr SwA Hrj-sStA n mdw-nTr smsw snwt xt wr] king's son of his body, hereditary prince, count, sole companion, overseer of all royal works, director of the palace, chief justice and vizier, chief lector-priest, priest of Horus of Libya, elevated of arm, great of censing, servant of the throne, priest of the akes-ornament, priest of Hepwy, priest of Horus-Shewa(?), secretary of the sacred writings, elder of the snwt-house, khet-priest of the Great One. Six damaged limestone standing statues (14-11-92 = MFA 34.1461, 14-11-93 = MFA 34.235, 14-11-94 = MFA 21.953a-b, 14-11-95 = MFA 21.955a-b, 14-11-96 = MFA 21954a-b deaccessioned = MMA 64.66.2, 14-11-97 = MFA 21.956a-b deaccessioned = MMA 64.66.1) inscribed for Babaef; found in G 5230 S (= S chapel/serdab) SS-2. Four limestone statue bases (14-11-78, 14-11-79 = MFA 14.1686, 14-11-80 = MFA 14.1687, 14-11-81) inscribed for Babaef; found in G 5230 S (= S chapel/serdab) SS-1. Fragmentary black granite seated scribe statue (14-11-151 + 14-12-7 + 14-12-82 = MFA 21.931a-c) inscribed for Babaef; pieces found scattered in G 5230 S (= S chapel/serdab) room O, pit G 5221 A, and pit G 5211 A. Fragmentary incomplete red granite standing pair statue (14-11-84 = MFA 14.1688 + 14-11-89a = MFA 14.1690.1 + 14-11-89b = MFA 14.1690.2 + 14-11-89c = MFA 14.1690.3 + 14-11-117 = MFA 14.1960.2 + 14-11-118 = MFA 14.1697) inscribed for Babaef; pieces found scattered in G 5230 S (= S chapel/serdab) SS-1 and SS-2, and between mastabas G 5110 and G 5230. Fragmentary alabaster standing statue (fragments from 14-2-2 + 14-2-4 + 14-3-1 = MFA 24.603 reconstructed statue) inscribed for Babaef; found scattered in vicinity of G 4620 and G 4820. Fragments of alabaster seated statue (15-1-41) inscribed for Babaef; found between mastabas G 5110 and G 5230. Fragment of limestone statue base (33-2-170) inscribed for Babaef; found E of G 2370. Alabaster standing statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 7785) inscribed for Babaef; head of alabaster statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 7786) attributed to Babaef; lower part of granodiorite seated statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 8567) inscribed for Babaef; fragment of granodiorite standing statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 8566) inscribed for Babaef; all found in debris at north end of G 5230.
  • Bauefre (G 7310-7320)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Question if name is correct.
  • Djedefre

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 4. Son (?) of Khufu.
  • Hemetre (G 8464)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Father probably Khafre
  • Hemiunu (G 4000)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 4000. Probable son of Nefermaat (owner of tomb at Meidum), probable grandson of Snefru. Architectural elements, including chapel entrance lintel (Hildesheim 2380) and door jamb (Hildesheim 2146), inscribed for Hemiunu, identified as [jrj-pat HAtj-a xtmw-bjtj] hereditary prince, count, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt; door jamb found in situ in G 4000. Seated statue (Hildesheim 1962) inscribed for Hemiunu, identified as [sA nswt n XT=f tAjtj sAb TAtj wr djw pr-DHwtj] king's son of his body, chief justice and vizier, greatest of the five of the House of Thoth; found in situ in G 4000 serdab behind north niche.
  • Iuenmin (G 8080)

    • Type Mentioned on page
  • Iuenre (G 8466)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Son of Khafre
  • Kawab (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7120, along with Hetepheres [II] (original owner of G 7110). Son of Khufu and Meretites [I]. Appears in chapel relief in tomb of his daughter Meresankh III (owner of G 7530-7540), main room (east wall), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt smsw n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xrp jAwt nTrt aA dwAw] hereditary prince, king's eldest son of his body, chief lector-priest, director of divine offices, assistant of (the god) Duau; in situ in G 7530-7540). Also mentioned in tomb of his steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Khafre

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khufu

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Minkhaf (G 7430-7440)

    • Type Mentioned on page
  • Nefermaat (G 7060)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Son of Nefertkau.
  • Nefretkau (G 7050)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Probably Daughter of Snefru Probably Mother of Nefermaat (G 7060)
  • Nikaure (G 8158)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8158 = Lepsius 87, identified as [sA-nswt n Xt=f smsw tAjtj sAb TAtj] king's eldest son of his body, chief justice and vizier.
  • Sekhemkare (G 8154)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8154 (Lepsius 89). Entrance door jambs, right-hand reveal and drum inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj-pat hAtj-a jmj js xtmw-bjtj Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp n jt=f smr watj Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt aA dwAw Hrj-sStA n jt=f] king's son of his body, hereditary prince, count, councillor, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt, chief lector-priest of his father, sole companion, secretary of the House of Morning, assistant of (the god) Duau, secretary of his father; in situ in G 8154. Appears seated with his mother on western wall and seated with his wife on eastern wall of room a-1, identified as [tAjtj sAb TAtj] chief justice and vizier; in situ in G 8154. Also appears seated with his mother on eastern wall of room a-2, identified as [xrp aH] director of the palace; in situ in G 8154. Western wall of room a-2 inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xrp sSw mDAt nt (jt=f) smr watj n jt=f wt jnpw] chief lector-priest, director of scribes of the documents of (his father), sole companion of his father, embalmer of Anubis; in situ in G 8154. Northern wall of room a-2 inscribed for Sekhemkare, identified as [jmAx xr jt=f nswt xr nTr aA xr nswt-bjtj xafra xr nswt-bjtj mnkAwra xr nswt-bjtj SpsskAf xr nswt-bjtj wsrkAf xr nswt-bjtj sAHwra] revered before his father the king, before the Great God, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Khafre, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Menkaure, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Shepseskaf, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Userkaf, before the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Sahure; in situ in G 8154.
  • Seshathetep Heti (G 5150)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5150. Seshathetep, called Heti. Chapel entrance lintel and door jambs, and north and south false doors inscribed for Seahathetep; also appears in chapel relief (west, north, south, and east walls); identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f smr xrp aH wt jnpw Xrj-Hb wr mDw Sma rx nswt Hrj-sStA kAt nb nswt jmj-r kAt nb nswt] king's son of his body, companion, director of the palace, embalmer of Anubis, lector-priest, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, royal acquaintance, secretary of all royal works, overseer of all royal works; most in situ in G 5150. Fragmentary limestone standing pair statue of man and woman (KHM Vienna ÄS 7788) inscribed for [sA nswt n Xt=f smsw jrj-pat tAjtj sAb TAtj wr (mDw Sma) wr mAw jwnw xrp tjst bjtj aA dwAw wn r (Hm-nTr) xntjxm Hm-nTr bA n anpt Hm-nTr Hr stX xrp mrwt Sma mHw Hm-nTr BAstt Hm-nTr Ssmtt wa wrw Hb sS mDAt-nTr smsw snwt jmj-r kAt nbt nswt] eldest king's son of his body, hereditary prince, chief justice and vizier, great one (of the tens of Upper Egypt), greatest of the seers of Iunu, director of the tjst-companions of the king of Lower Egypt, assistant of (the god) Duau, opener of the mouth, (priest of) Khenty-khem, priest of Ba-anpet, priest of Horus and Seth, director of singers of Upper and Lower Egypt, priest of Bastet, priest of Seshmetet, unique one among the great ones of the festival, scribe of the divine book, elder of the snwt-house, overseer of all royal works (names not preserved), possibly representing Seshathetep Heti and his wife, or his parents; found in G 5150 (part of statue found in shaft, part found in serdab). Limestone false door tablet (OIC_E_13546, now in Chicago) of Seshathetep Heti. He and his wife Hepetka(?) sit facing each other over an offering table. Findspot unrecorded, presumably from southern(?) false door.
  • Seshemnefer [III] (G 5170)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5170. North and south false doors inscribed for Seshemnefer; also appears in chapel relief (west, south, east walls); identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f tAjtj sAb Tatj] king's son of his body, chief justice and vizier; chapel (Tübingen 3) found in situ in G 5170. Son ([sA=f] his son) of Seshemnefer [II] (owner of G 5080) and Henutsen. Appears in chapel relief, west wall (between false doors, kneeling beneath chair, figure on right), south wall (upper register of three registers fully preserved, figure on left), and east wall (depicted as young boy standing in front of his father), identified as [jmj-r sSw a nswt] overseer of royal document scribes; in situ in G 5080.
  • Seshemnefer [II] (G 5080)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5080. Pillars and jambs of court entrance and north and south false doors inscribed for Seshemnefer, identified as [jmj-r sSw a nswt Hrj-sStA n wDt-mdw nb nt nswt jmj-r kAt nb nswt sS Xrt-a nswt sS a nswt n sbAjt nswt Hrj-sStA n Xrt-a nswt jmj-r (pr) aHAw m prwj] overseer of royal document scribes, secretary of every royal decree, overseer of all royal works, scribe of the royal document-case, royal document scribe of the royal instructors, secretary of the royal document-case, overseer of (the house of) weapons in the two houses; also appears in chapel relief (west, south, and east walls); in situ in G 5080. Red granite sarcophagus (33-4-19 = Cairo JE 60541) inscribed for Seshemnefer; found in situ in G 5080 B.
  • Seshemnefer [I] (G 4940)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 4940. North and south false doors inscribed for Seshemnefer; also appears in chapel relief (north, west, east, and south walls), identified as [rx nswt Xrj-tp nswt Hwt Hr-xpr xt HA Hm-nTr Hqt Hm-nTr Hr THnw qA-a sAb aD-mr wr mDw Sma Hrj-sStA jmj-r kAt nt nswt jmj-r sSw Xr-a nswt Hrj-wDbw m Hwt-anx jmj-r stj-DfAw smr Hm-nTr jnpw xrp aH] royal acquaintance, royal chamberlain of the funerary temple of Horkheper (Djedefre), khet-priest of Ha, priest of Heqet, priest of Horus of Libya, elevated of arm, judge and administrator, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, secretary, overseer of royal works, overseer of scribes of the royal portfolios, master of reversion-offerings in the Mansion of Life, overseer of the two places of provisions, companion, priest of Anubis, director of the palace; in situ in G 4940.
  • Snefru

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks First king of Dynasty 4. Father of Khufu.

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Hermann Junker

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1877–1962
    • Remarks Egyptologist, Director of German-Austrian expedition to Giza, 1911–1929. Published 12 volumes of final excavation reports from Giza expedition. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Selim Hassan (Bey)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates Egyptian, 1886–1961
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Sub Director General. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1886-1961) Egyptian Egyptologist; born Mit-Nagi, 15 April 1886, he studied at the Higher Teacher's College, Cairo under Kamal (q.v.); in 1912 he became a teacher and in 1921 obtained a post in the Egyptian Museum as assistant keeper; he studied in Paris 1923-7 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes; he was the first Egyptian to be appointed as a Professor of Egyptology in the Universitv of Cairo, 1928 - 36; he was later made Deputy Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service responsible for the care of all monuments in the Nile valley, 1936-39; Ph.D. Vienna University, 1935; stimulated by the archaeological work of P. E. Newberry (q.v.) and Junker (q.v.)he began an active career in excavations with the clearance of some of the Giza mastabas in 1929; the excavations carried on by him in this necropolis continued until 1939 by which time a great deal of digging had been achieved, published in 10 parts; he also cleared the Sphinx and its temple, for the first time completely digging out the great amphitheatre around it and ensuring that it would not be buried by send again so easily; he wrote a study on this work and on the temple of Amenhotep II here; in addition the so-called Fourth Pyramid or the palace-façade tomb of Queen Khent-kawes of the Fourth Dynasty was investigated and also the funerary town of the priests associated with it; he later worked on the Unas causeway at Saqqara and at the valley temple of this king, discovering some of the mastabas in this area and two great subterranean tombs dated to the Second Dynasty; his final excavations at Giza were carried out on the east and south faces of the Great Pyramid and at the mortuary temple of King Khufu, 1938-9; he also took part in the campaign to save the monments of Nubia, and wrote a report on this subject; he published about 53 books and articles on Egyptological subjects in English, French, and Arabic, Hymnes religieux du Moyen Empire, 1928; Le Poème dit de Pentaour et Le rapport officiel sur la bataiILe de Qadesh , 1929; Excavations at Giza, 10 pts., 1929-60; The Sphinx. Its History in the Light of recent Excavations, 1949; Report on the Monunents of Nubia,1955Excavations at Saqqara 1937-8, 3 vols., 1975; in Arabic Literature of Ancient Egpt, 2 vols.; Ancient Egypt from Prehistoric Times to the Age of Rameses 11, 6 vols.; he died in Giza, 30 Sept. 1961. AfO 20 (1963), 310 (H. Brunner); Archaeology 14, no, 4 (1961, 293; ASAE 58 (1964), 61- 84 (bibl.) (Dia Abou-Ghazi); Orientalia 31 (1962), 271; Goettinger Miszellen 76 (1984), 78-80; Reid, JAOS 105 (1985), 237, 241-44.