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Details

  • Format
    Article
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Year Published
    1996
  • Number of Pages
    28
  • Citation Text
    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Presenting the Scroll: Papyrus Documents in Tombs Scenes of the Old Kingdom." In Peter Der Manuelian, ed. Studies in Honor of William Kelly Simpson 2. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1996, pp. 561-588.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Hemetre (G 8464)
    Iuenka (in G 7130-7140)
    Kahif (G 2136)
    Kanefer (G 2150)
    Kaninisut [I] (G 2155)
    Khafreankh (G 7948)
    Khnumenti (G 2374)
    Khufukhaf [I] (G 7130-7140)
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Merib Kapunisut (G 2100-I)
    Neferherenptah (G 4311)
    Nisutnefer (G 4970)
    Saib (G 2092+2093)
    Sekhemka (G 4411)
    Seshathetep Heti (G 5150)
    Seshemnefer [IV] (Lepsius 53)
    Tjenti (Lepsius 77)
    Wetka (in G 7130-7140)
  • Publisher
    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  • Editor
    Peter Der Manuelian, 1959–
  • Author
    Peter Der Manuelian, 1959–
  • Individual - Modern
    William Kelly Simpson, American

Tombs and Monuments 17

  • D 117

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2092+2093

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2100-I

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2136

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2150

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2155

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2374

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 4311

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 4411

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 4761

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 4970

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 5150

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 6010

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 7130-7140

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 7530-7540

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 7948

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • Seneb

    • Site Name Western Cemetery

Finds 3

People 21

Ancient People

  • Hemetre (G 8464)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Father probably Khafre
  • Iuenka (in G 7130-7140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Khufukaf [I] (owner of G 7130-7140); appears offering papyrus scroll to his father on north inner jamb of chapel; also appears holding scroll on south inner jamb, both times identified as [sA nswt]. Appears kneeling in top register of north facade.
  • Kahif (G 2136)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2136. Architectural elements, including chapel entrance lintel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8211) and drum lintel (in situ) inscribed for Kahif, identified as [wab nswt sHD xntjw-S] royal wab-priest, inspector of palace attendants; south false door inscribed for Kahif, identified as [sHD xntjw-S rx nswt wab nswt Hm-nTr xwfw Hrj tm(?)] inspector of palace attendants, royal acquaintance, royal wab-priest, priest of Khufu, supervisor of the tem(?); also appears in chapel relief (east, south, west, and north walls), identified on north wall as [Hm-nTr Hr mDdw (Hrj)-sStA Hm-nTr mDdrnbtj] priest of the Horus Medjedu (Khufu), secretary, priest of Medjedernebty (Khufu); appears on tablet of north false door inscribed for his mother Khenmet, identified as [sHD xntjw-S pr-aA wab nswt Hm-nTr xwfw] inspector of palace attendants of the Great House, royal wab-priest, priest of Khufu; all but lintel in situ in G 2136.
  • Kanefer (G 2150)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2150. North and south false doors inscribed for Kanefer, identified as [jmj-r wpwt smr watj smsw js xrp aH] overseer of commissions, sole companion, elder of the is-chamber, director of the palace]; also appears in interior chapel relief (north, west, south walls), identified as [mdw kA-HD xrp aw xrp tmAtjw smsw js m prwj xrp mrwj nswt jmj-r pHw Hrj-sStA xAswt nbwt] herdsman of the White Bull, director of interpreters, director of bowcase bearers, elder of the is-chamber of the two houses, director of the two canals of the king, overseer of marshlands, master of secrets of every foreign land; in situ in G 2150. Interior chapel entrance door jambs (part of north door jamb: 32-12-8 = MFA 34.57; parts of south door jamb and small section of facade south of interior chapel entrance: 32-12-7 = MFA 34.58), and facade north and south of interior chapel entrance (block from north facade: 32-12-10) inscribed for Kanefer, identified as [Hm-nTr Sbk Sdt sA nswt mdw rxjjt jmj-jb n nTr=f] priest of Sobek of Crocodilopolis, king's son, staff of the commoners, he who is in the heart of his god; in situ in G 2150 (some loose blocks replaced in original position, others removed from site). Displaced lintel, no name preserved but probably belonging to Kanefer, identified as [jmj-r wpwt (smsw js) prwj xrp aw Hrj-sStA xAswt nbwt smr] overseer of commissions, (elder of the is-chamber) of the two houses, director of interpreters, master of secrets of every foreign land, companion; found in street east of G 2150. Drum lintel (Louvre C 155) inscribed for Kanefer, identified as [sA nswt jmj-r wpwt] king’s son, overseer of commissions; findspot unknown, perhaps originally from G 2150.
  • Kaninisut [I] (G 2155)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2155. Father of Kaninisut [II] (owner of G 2156). Chapel entrance north and south door jambs, and north and south false doors inscribed for Kaninisut; also appears in chapel relief (west wall, between false doors, north wall, and east wall, over chapel entrance); chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006) found in situ in G 2155.
  • Khafreankh (G 7948)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
  • Khnumenti (G 2374)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2374 (possibly buried in sloping-passage shaft G 2385 A). Son ([sA=f n Xt=f] son of his body) of Senedjemib Inti (owner of G 2370); father of Merptahankh-meryre Nekhebu (?) (owner of G 2381, buried in sloping-passage shaft G 2382 A). False door inscribed for Khnumenti, identified as [smr watj mdw rxjjt jwn-knmwt jmj-r wabtj jmj-r prwj nbw Hrj-sStA n nswt jmj-r Snwtj mrj nb=f m tAwj=f jmj-jb nswt m kAt=f nbt jmj-r prwj-HD] sole companion, staff of the commoners, iun-kenmut priest, overseer of the two wabets, overseer of the two houses of gold, royal secretary, overseer of the two granaries, beloved of his lord in his Two Lands, he who is in the heart of the king in all his works, overseer of the two treasuries; in situ in G 2374. Chapel architrave inscribed for Khnumenti and appears in chapel relief (facade and through out chapel), identified as [jrj-pat HAtj-a tAjtj sAb TAtj jmj-r kAt nbt nt nswt mDH qd nswt m prwj Xrj-tp nswt Hrj-sStA wDt-mdw nbt nt nswt jmj-jb nswt jmj-r sSw a n nswt jmj-r Hwt-wrt sjsw sHD Hmw-nTr Dd-swt-sA-ra-ttj] hereditary prince, count, chief justice and vizier, overseer of all royal works, royal architect in the two houses, royal chamberlain, secretary of every royal decree, he who is in the heart of the king, overseer of royal document scribes, overseer of the six great law-courts, inspector of priests of the pyramid of Teti; some blocks in situ, others found loose in G 2374. Also appears in chapel relief in tomb of his father Senedjemib Inti (owner of G 2370), first antechamber (= room II, west wall, standing behind his father [bottom register]); this scene now almost completely destroyed (only lowest register still in situ in G 2370), but was drawn in its entirety by Lepsius. Khnumenti likely also appeared in lowest registers of south and/or north walls of offering room (= room IV), but inscriptions are illegible.
  • Khufukhaf [I] (G 7130-7140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Khufu and probably Henutsen. He is buried in G 7140.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Merib Kapunisut (G 2100-I)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2100-I. Merib, also known as Kapunisut. Chapel entrance lintel, drum and door jambs inscribed for Merib, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f smr xtmtj-nTr bA-nTrw dwA-tAwj xtmw-nTr Nb-rxjjt ab-nTrw jmj-r kAt nt nswt] king's son of his body, companion, god's sealer of (the ships) 'Ba-netjeru' and 'Dua-tawy', god's sealer of (the ships) 'Neb-rekhyt' and 'Ab-netjeru', overseer of royal works. North and south false doors inscribed for Merib, identified as [xtmw-nTr wjA jmj-r kAt nbt nswt Hts(?) jnpw smr watj wr mDw Sma rx nswt Xrj-Hb wt jnpw] god's sealer of the ship, overseer of all royal works, staff(?) of Anubis, sole companion, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, royal acquaintance, lector-priest, embalmer of Anubis. Also appears in chapel relief (north, west, south, and east walls), identified as [jmj-r mSa xrp aH aD-mr Haw r p nb wr mAAw jwnw Hm-nTr xwfw] expedition leader, director of the palace, administrator of the fleet, mouth of every Butite, greatest of seers in Iunu, priest of Khufu; chapel (ÄMP Berlin 1107) found in situ in G 2100-I. Also appears in tomb of his daughter Nensedjerkai (owner of G 2100-II), chapel, pillared portico, west faces of north and south pillars, identified as [sA nswt xtmw-nTr wjA smr watj sHD bA-nTrw] king's son, god's sealer of the ship, sole companion, inspector of (the ship) 'Ba-netjeru'; in situ in G 2100-II.
  • Neferherenptah (G 4311)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4311. North and south false doors inscribed for Neferherenptah, identified as [sAb smsw hAjt rx nswt jrj-mDAt Hrj-sStA sbA nswt] judge and elder of the hall, royal acquaintance, letter carrier, secretary, royal instructor; also appears in chapel relief (including displaced fragments 37-7-21a + 37-7-21b); all but displaced fragments in situ in G 4311.
  • Nisutnefer (G 4970)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4970. Chapel entrance drum lintel and north and south false doors inscribed for Nisutnefer, also appears in chapel relief (north, south, west, and east walls), identified as [jmj-r aH sAb Hrj-sStA jmj-r prw msw-nswt aD-mr grgt jmj-r mnnw jmj-r nswtjw HqA Hwt aAt sSm-tA tA-wr sSm-tA wADt jmj-r wabw wrxafra xrp jmjw sAw wr-xafra Hm-nTr xafra] overseer of the palace, juridicial secretary, overseer of the houses of the royal children, administrator of a settlement, overseer of fortresses, overseer of the king's people, chief of a Great Estate, nomarch of U.E. 8, nomarch of U.E. 10, overseer of wab-priests of the pyramid of Khafre, director of members of the phyles of the pyramid of Khafre, priest of Khafre; in situ in G 4970. Seated statue (Hildesheim 2143) inscribed for Nisutnefer, identified as [rx nswt jmj-r wpwt] royal acquaintance, overseer of commissions; found in situ in G 4970 serdab (behind south false door).
  • Saib (G 2092+2093)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2092+2093. False door inscribed for Saib; also appears in chapel relief, including chapel entrance door jambs, and displaced pillar from recessed chapel; identified as [smr xrp aH jmj-r xntjw-S pr-aA sAb aD-mr Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt] companion, director of the palace, overseer of palace attendants of the Great House, judge and administrator, secretary of the House of Morning; door jambs and false door in situ in G 2091.
  • Sekhemka (G 4411)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4411. Architectual elements, including lintel, drum lintel, and door jambs of entrance of inner room of chapel (Berlin (East) 1186) inscribed for Sekhemka, identified as [Xrj-Hb Hrj-sStA wr idt smA jnpw Hm-nTr Hr THnw qA-a] lector-priest, secretary, great of censing, sma-priest of Anubis, priest of Horus of Libya, elevated of arm; found in situ in G 4411.
  • Seshathetep Heti (G 5150)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 5150. Seshathetep, called Heti. Chapel entrance lintel and door jambs, and north and south false doors inscribed for Seahathetep; also appears in chapel relief (west, north, south, and east walls); identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f smr xrp aH wt jnpw Xrj-Hb wr mDw Sma rx nswt Hrj-sStA kAt nb nswt jmj-r kAt nb nswt] king's son of his body, companion, director of the palace, embalmer of Anubis, lector-priest, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, royal acquaintance, secretary of all royal works, overseer of all royal works; most in situ in G 5150. Fragmentary limestone standing pair statue of man and woman (KHM Vienna ÄS 7788) inscribed for [sA nswt n Xt=f smsw jrj-pat tAjtj sAb TAtj wr (mDw Sma) wr mAw jwnw xrp tjst bjtj aA dwAw wn r (Hm-nTr) xntjxm Hm-nTr bA n anpt Hm-nTr Hr stX xrp mrwt Sma mHw Hm-nTr BAstt Hm-nTr Ssmtt wa wrw Hb sS mDAt-nTr smsw snwt jmj-r kAt nbt nswt] eldest king's son of his body, hereditary prince, chief justice and vizier, great one (of the tens of Upper Egypt), greatest of the seers of Iunu, director of the tjst-companions of the king of Lower Egypt, assistant of (the god) Duau, opener of the mouth, (priest of) Khenty-khem, priest of Ba-anpet, priest of Horus and Seth, director of singers of Upper and Lower Egypt, priest of Bastet, priest of Seshmetet, unique one among the great ones of the festival, scribe of the divine book, elder of the snwt-house, overseer of all royal works (names not preserved), possibly representing Seshathetep Heti and his wife, or his parents; found in G 5150 (part of statue found in shaft, part found in serdab). Limestone false door tablet (OIC_E_13546, now in Chicago) of Seshathetep Heti. He and his wife Hepetka(?) sit facing each other over an offering table. Findspot unrecorded, presumably from southern(?) false door.
  • Seshemnefer [IV] (Lepsius 53)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Lepsius 53. Two seated statues in forecourt (on either side of exterior chapel entrance), inscribed [smr watj sSmnfr] sole companion Seshemnefer; in situ in Lepsius 53. Interior chapel entrance lintel and drum lintel and false door (in room c) inscribed for Seshemnefer; also appears in chapel relief (in most instances name not preserved, only lower portions of walls preserved) and displaced fragmentary block of relief (Hildesheim 3190) depicted as statue; identified as [xrp nstj m pr-anx Hrj-sStA n mdt nb sStA nt nswt HqA bAt] director of the two thrones in the Mansion of Life, secretary of all secret commands of the king, chief of Bat; in situ in Lepsius 53 (block found in Lepsius 53). Possibly same individual as Seshemnefer (in G 5170), eldest son of Seshemnefer [III] (owner of G 5170).
  • Tjenti (Lepsius 77)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Lepsius 77. Name and titles appear on architectural fragments (jambs and drum lintels of doorways), identified as [rx nswt Hrj-sStA wabt nswt jmj-r gs-pr jmntt] royal acquaintance, secretary of the royal wabet, overseer of the gs-pr of the necropolis; in situ in Lepsius 77.
  • Wetka (in G 7130-7140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Khufukaf [I] (owner of G 7130-7140). Appears offering papyrus scroll to his father on north inner jamb of chapel; also appears holding scroll on south inner jamb, both times identified as [sA nswt]. Appears kneeling in top register of north facade. Also on fragment of inscribed relief (26-3-72); found in street G 7100 debris and presumed to be originally from G 7130 chapel.

Modern People

  • Peter Der Manuelian

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates 1959–
    • Remarks Giza Archives Project Director, 2000-2011; Giza Project at Harvard Director, 2011-present.
  • Peter Der Manuelian

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates 1959–
    • Remarks Giza Archives Project Director, 2000-2011; Giza Project at Harvard Director, 2011-present.
  • William Kelly Simpson

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American

Institutions 1