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Details

  • Format
    Journal Article
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Year Published
    2009
  • Number of Pages
    37
  • Citation Text
    Manuelian, Peter Der. "On the Early History of Giza: The 'Lost' Wadi Cemetery (Giza Archives Gleanings, III)." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 95 (2009), pp. 105-140.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Iaunefer(?) (in GW 16)
    Ihi (in GW 38)
    Ikhi (GW unnumbered tomb)
    Ikhi (in GW 38)
    Inti (in GW 38)
    Meresankh II (G 7410-7420)
    Merib Kapunisut (G 2100-I)
    Merynetjertety (GW unnumbered tomb)
    Nebu (Lepsius 72)
    Nebu (in GW 38)
    Nebuef (in G 4920)
    Pepi (D 23)
    Pepi (in GW 38)
    Pepi (in Neferen)
    Pepi (in Neferherenptah 2)
    Pepi (in Sensen)
    Redines (in GW 38)
    Senti (in GW 38)
    Teti (near G 5130)
    Tjenti (G 4920)
    Tjetut (in G 8656)
    Wepemnefret (G 1201)
  • Individual - Modern
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
    Mark Lehner, American
    Nicholas Melnikoff
    Zahi Hawass, Egyptian
  • Publisher
    Egypt Exploration Society
  • Author
    Peter Der Manuelian, 1959–

Tombs and Monuments 75

  • GW 1

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 10

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 11

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 12

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 13

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 14

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 15

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 16

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 19

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 2

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 20

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 22

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 23

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 24

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 25

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 26

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 27

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 28

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 29

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 3

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 30

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 31

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 32

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 33

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 34

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 35

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 36

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 37

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 38

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 39

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 4

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 40

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 41

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 42

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 43

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 44

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 45

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 46

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 47

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 48

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 49

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 5

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 50

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 51

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 52

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 53

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 54

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 55

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 56

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 57

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 58

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 59

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 6

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 60

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 61

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 62

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 63

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 64

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 65

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 66

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 67

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 68

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 69

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 7

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 70

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 71

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 72

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 73

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 74

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 75

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 76

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 77

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 8

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • GW 9

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)
  • Wadi Cemetery (GW)

    • Site Name Wadi Cemetery (Reisner; north of W. Cem)

Finds 9

People 27

Ancient People

  • Iaunefer(?) (in GW 16)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Damaged limestone offering niche lintel (Hearst 6-19820); found in GW 16. Sunk relief [Htp-dj-nswt] offering formula (incised from right to left) with sunk relief standing male figure with outstretched arm and starched kilt at left edge of block. Name and title(s) difficult to read, but may contain nfr sign (Sign List F35) and unusually tall striding man with staff (A20); possibly [jAw-nfr] Iaunefer (though written in reverse [nfr-jAw]). Name most likely appears over figure's head, as well as on round drum in lower center of block.
  • Ihi (in GW 38)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Nebu (one of a group labeled [msw=f] his children). Name appears on limestone offering niche lintel (MFA APP.1921.1) inscribed for Nebu; found displaced at east face of GW 38.
  • Ikhi (GW unnumbered tomb)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Limestone offering basin inscribed for Ikhi, identified as [rx nswt] royal acquaintance; found in situ in front of niche in east face of unnumbered tomb in wadi cemetery (north end of clearing). Possibly same individual listed as a son of Nebu on offering niche lintel (MFA APP.1921.1) from GW 38.
  • Ikhi (in GW 38)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Nebu (one of a group labeled [msw=f] his children). Name appears on limestone offering niche lintel (MFA APP.1921.1) inscribed for Nebu; found displaced at east face of GW 38. Possibly same individual as owner of offering basin found in situ in unnumbered Wadi Cemetery tomb.
  • Inti (in GW 38)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Probable wife of Nebu. Name appears on limestone offering niche lintel (MFA APP.1921.1) inscribed for Nebu, identified as [mjtrt] mitret; found displaced at east face of GW 38.
  • Meresankh II (G 7410-7420)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Meresankh buried in G 7410.
  • Merib Kapunisut (G 2100-I)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2100-I. Merib, also known as Kapunisut. Chapel entrance lintel, drum and door jambs inscribed for Merib, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f smr xtmtj-nTr bA-nTrw dwA-tAwj xtmw-nTr Nb-rxjjt ab-nTrw jmj-r kAt nt nswt] king's son of his body, companion, god's sealer of (the ships) 'Ba-netjeru' and 'Dua-tawy', god's sealer of (the ships) 'Neb-rekhyt' and 'Ab-netjeru', overseer of royal works. North and south false doors inscribed for Merib, identified as [xtmw-nTr wjA jmj-r kAt nbt nswt Hts(?) jnpw smr watj wr mDw Sma rx nswt Xrj-Hb wt jnpw] god's sealer of the ship, overseer of all royal works, staff(?) of Anubis, sole companion, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, royal acquaintance, lector-priest, embalmer of Anubis. Also appears in chapel relief (north, west, south, and east walls), identified as [jmj-r mSa xrp aH aD-mr Haw r p nb wr mAAw jwnw Hm-nTr xwfw] expedition leader, director of the palace, administrator of the fleet, mouth of every Butite, greatest of seers in Iunu, priest of Khufu; chapel (ÄMP Berlin 1107) found in situ in G 2100-I. Also appears in tomb of his daughter Nensedjerkai (owner of G 2100-II), chapel, pillared portico, west faces of north and south pillars, identified as [sA nswt xtmw-nTr wjA smr watj sHD bA-nTrw] king's son, god's sealer of the ship, sole companion, inspector of (the ship) 'Ba-netjeru'; in situ in G 2100-II.
  • Merynetjertety (GW unnumbered tomb)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Limestone offering basin inscribed for Merynetjertety; found in situ in front of niche in east face of unnumbered tomb in wadi cemetery (north end of clearing). Alternately, inscribed for two individuals named Merynetjer and Tety. Iymery is less likely reading.
  • Nebu (Lepsius 72)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Drum of entrance doorway with name and titles.
  • Nebu (in GW 38)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Limestone offering niche lintel (MFA APP.1921.1) inscribed for Nebu (name means "the swimmer"), identified as [rtHtjj] baker; found displaced at east face of GW 38.
  • Nebuef (in G 4920)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Tjenti (owner of G 4920), west wall (between false doors, third register, last figure on left), identified as [xrp sH] director of the dining hall; in situ in G 4920.
  • Pepi (D 23)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner (?) of D 23. Limestone standing group statue (Hildesheim 17) of Pepi and two male figures (her sons ?), both named Rashepses; Pepi identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; found displaced in D 23, shaft 5. There are three possibilities as to who is actually represented in this statue: 1) Rashepses, his wife Pepi, and their son Rashepses. If this is true, then the craftsman who inscribed the piece switched the two Rashepses inscriptions, labeling the man as [sA=s raSpss] "her son Rashepses" and the boy as [wab nswt raSpss] "royal wab-priest Rashepses". This seems unlikely because the focal point of the group (the central, largest figure) is clearly Pepi, which would be quite unusual in a normal family statue. Also, the son is labeled "her son", not "his son" or "their son". 2) A so-called "pseudo-group", representing Pepi with her son Rashepses who appears twice at different ages. If this is the case, then the labels are more understandable; as a small boy, his size, nakedness and side lock all indicate that Rashepses must be the son of a nearby adult (i.e. Pepi) without it needing to be spelled out. However, the larger figure of Rashepses which appears completely adult and could be mistaken for a husband of Pepi (indeed, see above) requires the label "her son" to make clear his role in the family. The problem with this interpretation is that the statue is clearly focused on Pepi, rather than her son, and in pseudo-groups the repeated figure is most often the statue owner and most important figure. 3) Pepi, with her TWO sons, both of whom are named Rashepses. This giving more than one child the same name is not that unusual, although it is by no means the norm in the Old Kingdom. In that case, the reasoning used above holds true (the child figure does not require [sA=s] because it is clear that he is a son, while the adult figure needs the label for clarity). SInce it is hard to believe that a wife would be shown in the center of a group statue towering over her husband, or that she would have such an important position in a pseudo-group where her son was the duplicated figure (and hence, probably the commissioner of the piece), it seems most likely that Pepi was the dedicator of the piece, which would explain her depiction with two juvenile sons and why she was the main figure of the group.
  • Pepi (in GW 38)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Daughter of Nebu (one of a group labeled [msw=f] his children). Name appears on limestone offering niche lintel (MFA APP.1921.1) inscribed for Nebu; found displaced at east face of GW 38.
  • Pepi (in Neferen)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears (without family relationship, if any, indicated) on north false door, north jamb (carrying tray on her head); found in mastaba of Neferen (unnumbered mastaba excavated by Junker).
  • Pepi (in Neferherenptah 2)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Named on lintel (Manchester University Museum 4612) inscribed for Neferherenptah (owner of Neferherenptah 2), identified as [Xrt-nTrj (?)] workman of the necropolis; found by W.M.F. Petrie (see Rowe, Bulletin 44.1, p. 105; Petrie, Gizeh and Rifeh, pp. 8-9, pl. VIIa).
  • Pepi (in Sensen)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Sensen (owner of Sensen, unnumbered mastaba excavated by Junker). False door tablet depicting Sensen and his wife Pepi seated at offering table, identified as [Hm-nTr HwtHr rxt nswt] priestess of Hathor, royal acquaintance; found displaced in front of mastaba of Sensen.
  • Redines (in GW 38)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Nebu (one of a group labeled [msw=f] his children). Name appears on limestone offering niche lintel (MFA APP.1921.1) inscribed for Nebu; found displaced at east face of GW 38.
  • Senti (in GW 38)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Daughter of Nebu (one of a group labeled [msw=f] his children). Name appears on limestone offering niche lintel (MFA APP.1921.1) inscribed for Nebu; found displaced at east face of GW 38.
  • Teti (near G 5130)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Possible owner of G 5130. Fragment of limestone statue (base with feet) (15-10-6) inscribed for Teti, identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr xwfw sS] royal wab-priest, priest of Khufu, scribe; found in debris of street between G 5130 and G 5140.
  • Tjenti (G 4920)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4920. North and south false doors and chapel entrance door jambs inscribed for Tjenti, identified as [smr watj xrp aH Hrj-sStA pr-dwAt HqA bAt] sole companion, director of the palace, secretary of the House of Morning, priest of Bat; also appears in chapel relief (north, west, south, east walls, figure not fully preserved on east wall); in situ in G 4920.
  • Tjetut (in G 8656)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Seshemu (owner of G 8656). Northern false door of main chapel inscribed for Tjetut, identified as [rxt nswt Hm-nTr Nt Hm-nTr HwtHr m swt=s nbt] royal acquaintance, priestess of Neith, priestess of Hathor in all her places; in situ in G 8656.
  • Wepemnefret (G 1201)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 1201. Limestone slab stela (Hearst 6-19825) inscribed for Wepemnefret, identified as [mDH sSw nswt wr mDw Sma hkA mHjt Hm-nTr Hqt xt HA sA nswt] craftsman of the king's scribes, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, heka-priest of Mehit, priest of Heqet, khet-priest of Ha, king's son; found in situ on east face of G 1201.

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Mark Lehner

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American
    • Remarks Director of Ancient Egypt Research Associates (AERA) and Giza Plateau Mapping Project (GPMP).
  • Nicholas Melnikoff

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates
  • Peter Der Manuelian

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates 1959–
    • Remarks Giza Archives Project Director, 2000-2011; Giza Project at Harvard Director, 2011-present.
  • Zahi Hawass

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates Egyptian
    • Remarks Former Minister of State for Antiquities and Secretary General of Supreme Council of Antiquities

Institutions 1