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Details

  • Tomb Owner
    Raramu (G 2099)
  • Excavator
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
  • Attested
    Ankhet (in G 2099)
    Kahersetef (in G 2099)
    Kednes (in G 2099)
    Nikauptah (in G 2099)
    Tjes-tjaset (in G 2099)
  • Reisner Date
    Before end of Dynasty 5
  • PorterMoss Date
    Dynasty 6
  • Roth Date
    Djedkare - Unis?
  • Site Type
    Stone-built mastaba
  • Shafts
    G 2099 Serdab; G 2099 A; G 2099 B; G 2099 C; G 2099 D; G 2099 E; G 2099 F
  • Remarks
    .

Finds 8

Excavation Diary Pages 9

Maps & Plans 17

Drawings 5

Published Documents 5

Unpublished Documents 23

Full Bibliography

  • Lehmann, Katja. Der Serdab in den Privatgräbern des Alten Reiches 1-3. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universität Heidelberg, 2000, Kat. G110.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Penmeru Revisited–Giza Mastaba G 2197 (Giza Archives Gleanings V)." Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 45 (2009), p. 34.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Excavating the Old Kingdom. The Giza Necropolis and Other Mastaba Fields." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, p. 150, fig. 92.

    Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, p. 70.

    Roth, Ann Macy. A Cemetery of Palace Attendants: Including G 2084-2099, G 2230+2231, and G 2240. Giza Mastabas 6. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1995, pp. 150-154, figs. 80-81, 84, pl. 112(b, c).

Photos 58

People 7

Ancient People

  • Ankhet (in G 2099)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Raramu (owner of G 2099). Limestone standing pair statue (39-1-16 = Toledo 49.4) inscribed for Raramu and Ankhet; found in situ in G 2099 serdab.
  • Kahersetef (in G 2099)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f] his son) of Raramu (owner of G 2099). Limestone standing statue (39-1-19 = MFA 39.831 deaccessioned = Richmond 49.21) inscribed for Kahersetef (back pillar inscribed for Kednes), identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr xwfw xntj-S] royal wab-priest, priest of Khufu, palace attendant; also depicted on inscribed seat of limestone seated statue of Raramu (39-1-17 = Toledo 49.5), identified as [wab nswt smr xtrw(?) Hm-nTr xwfw xntj-S] royal wab-priest, companion of the kheteru(?), priest of Khufu, palace attendant; both statues found in situ in G 2099 serdab.
  • Kednes (in G 2099)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Son ([sA=f n Xt=f] his son of his body) of Raramu (owner of G 2099). Limestone triad (39-1-18 = Cairo JE 72138) of two men and small boy, Raramu (proper left), Nikauptah (proper right), Kednes (boy, center); Kednes identified as [wab nswt sS] royal wab-priest, scribe; limestone standing statue (39-1-19 = MFA 39.831 deaccessioned = Richmond 49.21) inscribed for Kahersetef, back pillar recut for Kednes, identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr xwfw] royal wab-priest, priest of Khufu; both statues found in situ in G 2099 serdab.
  • Nikauptah (in G 2099)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Limestone triad (39-1-18 = Cairo JE 72138) of two men and small boy, Raramu (proper left), Nikauptah (proper right), Kednes (boy, center); Nikauptah identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr xwfw] royal wab-priest, priest of Khufu; found in situ in G 2099 serdab. Roth (Giza Mastabas 6, p. 152) suggests Nikauptah as secondary name for Raramu (owner of G 2099).
  • Raramu (G 2099)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Owner of G 2099. Seated statue (39-1-17 = Toledo 49.5) inscribed for Raramu (with his daughter Tjes-tjaset and his son Kahersetef depicted on sides of seat), identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr xwfw m swt nb rx nswt jmj-xt xntjw-S pr-aA] royal wab-priest, priest of Khufu in all (his) places, royal acquaintance, under-supervisor of palace attendants of the Great House; limestone standing pair statue (39-1-16 = Toledo 49.4) inscribed for Raramu and his wife Ankhet; Raramu identified as [rx nswt wab nswt pr-aA] royal acquaintance, royal wab-priest of the Great House; limestone triad (39-1-18 = Cairo JE 72138) of two men and small boy, Raramu (proper left), Nikauptah (proper right), Kednes (boy, center); Raramu identified as [rx nswt jmj-xt pr-aA wab nswt xntjw-S] royal acquaintance, under-supervisor of palace attendants (royal wab-priest) of the Great House (words of titles seem to have been copied slightly out of sequence); statues found in situ in G 2099 serdab.
  • Tjes-tjaset (in G 2099)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Daughter ([sAt=f] his daughter) of Raramu (owner of G 2099). Depicted on inscribed seat of limestone seated statue of Raramu (39-1-17 = Toledo 49.5), identified as [xntt-S] palace attendant; found in situ in G 2099 serdab.

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.