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*The original, paper version of this page in “Chapter 16: The Royal Family of Dynasty Four” can be found in archival box L01 in the Egyptian Section archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Details

  • Classification
    Documentation-Unpublished manuscripts
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Date
    about 1934—1942
  • Mentioned on page
    François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette, French, 1821–1881
    Hermann Junker, German, 1877–1962
    Ankh-haf (G 7510)
    Djedefre
    Hemiunu (G 4000)
    Kaemah (G 1223)
    Khufu
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Meretites (G 4140)
    Neferirkare
    Nefermaat (G 7060)
    Nefretiabet (G 1225)
    Seshathetep Heti (G 5150)
    Seshemnefer [III] (G 5170)
    Seshemnefer [I] (G 4940)
    Shepseskaf
    Snefru
    Wepemnefret (G 1201)
  • Author
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942

Tombs and Monuments 8

  • G 1201

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 1223

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 1225

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2000

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 4000

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 5080

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 5150

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 7510

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery

Photos 1

People 19

Ancient People

  • Ankh-haf (G 7510)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7510. Husband of Hetepheres.
  • Djedefre

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 4. Son (?) of Khufu.
  • Hemiunu (G 4000)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 4000. Probable son of Nefermaat (owner of tomb at Meidum), probable grandson of Snefru. Architectural elements, including chapel entrance lintel (Hildesheim 2380) and door jamb (Hildesheim 2146), inscribed for Hemiunu, identified as [jrj-pat HAtj-a xtmw-bjtj] hereditary prince, count, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt; door jamb found in situ in G 4000. Seated statue (Hildesheim 1962) inscribed for Hemiunu, identified as [sA nswt n XT=f tAjtj sAb TAtj wr djw pr-DHwtj] king's son of his body, chief justice and vizier, greatest of the five of the House of Thoth; found in situ in G 4000 serdab behind north niche.
  • Kaemah (G 1223)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 1223. Limestone slab stela (Cairo JE 37725 = CG 57128) inscribed for Kaemah, identified as [jmj-r sAw Sma wr mDw Sma sA nswt] overseer of the phyles of Upper Egypt, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, king's son; found in situ on east face of G 1223.
  • Khufu

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Meretites (G 4140)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 4140. Limestone slab stela (MFA 12.1510) inscribed for Meretites, identified as [sAt nswt nt Xt=f] king's daughter of his body; found in situ on east face of G 4140.
  • Neferirkare

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 5.
  • Nefermaat (G 7060)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Son of Nefertkau.
  • Nefretiabet (G 1225)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 1225. Limestone slab stela (Louvre E 15591) inscribed for Nefretiabet, identified as [sAt nswt] king's daughter; found in G 1225.
  • Seshathetep Heti (G 5150)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5150. Seshathetep, called Heti. Chapel entrance lintel and door jambs, and north and south false doors inscribed for Seahathetep; also appears in chapel relief (west, north, south, and east walls); identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f smr xrp aH wt jnpw Xrj-Hb wr mDw Sma rx nswt Hrj-sStA kAt nb nswt jmj-r kAt nb nswt] king's son of his body, companion, director of the palace, embalmer of Anubis, lector-priest, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, royal acquaintance, secretary of all royal works, overseer of all royal works; most in situ in G 5150. Fragmentary limestone standing pair statue of man and woman (KHM Vienna ÄS 7788) inscribed for [sA nswt n Xt=f smsw jrj-pat tAjtj sAb TAtj wr (mDw Sma) wr mAw jwnw xrp tjst bjtj aA dwAw wn r (Hm-nTr) xntjxm Hm-nTr bA n anpt Hm-nTr Hr stX xrp mrwt Sma mHw Hm-nTr BAstt Hm-nTr Ssmtt wa wrw Hb sS mDAt-nTr smsw snwt jmj-r kAt nbt nswt] eldest king's son of his body, hereditary prince, chief justice and vizier, great one (of the tens of Upper Egypt), greatest of the seers of Iunu, director of the tjst-companions of the king of Lower Egypt, assistant of (the god) Duau, opener of the mouth, (priest of) Khenty-khem, priest of Ba-anpet, priest of Horus and Seth, director of singers of Upper and Lower Egypt, priest of Bastet, priest of Seshmetet, unique one among the great ones of the festival, scribe of the divine book, elder of the snwt-house, overseer of all royal works (names not preserved), possibly representing Seshathetep Heti and his wife, or his parents; found in G 5150 (part of statue found in shaft, part found in serdab). Limestone false door tablet (OIC_E_13546, now in Chicago) of Seshathetep Heti. He and his wife Hepetka(?) sit facing each other over an offering table. Findspot unrecorded, presumably from southern(?) false door.
  • Seshemnefer [III] (G 5170)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 5170. North and south false doors inscribed for Seshemnefer; also appears in chapel relief (west, south, east walls); identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f tAjtj sAb Tatj] king's son of his body, chief justice and vizier; chapel (Tübingen 3) found in situ in G 5170. Son ([sA=f] his son) of Seshemnefer [II] (owner of G 5080) and Henutsen. Appears in chapel relief, west wall (between false doors, kneeling beneath chair, figure on right), south wall (upper register of three registers fully preserved, figure on left), and east wall (depicted as young boy standing in front of his father), identified as [jmj-r sSw a nswt] overseer of royal document scribes; in situ in G 5080.
  • Seshemnefer [I] (G 4940)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 4940. North and south false doors inscribed for Seshemnefer; also appears in chapel relief (north, west, east, and south walls), identified as [rx nswt Xrj-tp nswt Hwt Hr-xpr xt HA Hm-nTr Hqt Hm-nTr Hr THnw qA-a sAb aD-mr wr mDw Sma Hrj-sStA jmj-r kAt nt nswt jmj-r sSw Xr-a nswt Hrj-wDbw m Hwt-anx jmj-r stj-DfAw smr Hm-nTr jnpw xrp aH] royal acquaintance, royal chamberlain of the funerary temple of Horkheper (Djedefre), khet-priest of Ha, priest of Heqet, priest of Horus of Libya, elevated of arm, judge and administrator, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, secretary, overseer of royal works, overseer of scribes of the royal portfolios, master of reversion-offerings in the Mansion of Life, overseer of the two places of provisions, companion, priest of Anubis, director of the palace; in situ in G 4940.
  • Shepseskaf

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Last king of Dynasty 4. Son of Menkaure. Horus name: [SpsXt] Shepseskhet.
  • Snefru

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks First king of Dynasty 4. Father of Khufu.
  • Wepemnefret (G 1201)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 1201. Limestone slab stela (Hearst 6-19825) inscribed for Wepemnefret, identified as [mDH sSw nswt wr mDw Sma hkA mHjt Hm-nTr Hqt xt HA sA nswt] craftsman of the king's scribes, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, heka-priest of Mehit, priest of Heqet, khet-priest of Ha, king's son; found in situ on east face of G 1201.

Modern People

  • François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates French, 1821–1881
    • Remarks Pasha; Egyptologist; Professor; Archaeologist of Sphinx Temple. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Hermann Junker

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1877–1962
    • Remarks Egyptologist, Director of German-Austrian expedition to Giza, 1911–1929. Published 12 volumes of final excavation reports from Giza expedition. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.