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Details

  • Format
    Article
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Series
    Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Abteilung Kairo Sonderschrift
  • Year Published
    1995
  • Number of Pages
    24
  • Citation Text
    Eaton-Krauss, Marianne. "Pseudo-Groups." In Rainer Stadelmann and Hourig Sourouzian, eds. Kunst des Alten Reiches: Symposium im Deutschen Archäologischen Institut Kairo am 29. und 30. Oktober 1991. Sonderschrift des Deutschen Archäologischen Institut Abteilung Kairo 28. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1995, pp. 57-74.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Amendjefaes (in G 4940)
    Autib (in D 20)
    Babaef (G 5230)
    Hetepib (G 1022)
    Inkaf (G 8520)
    Iskha (in G 8172)
    Khafre
    Khufu
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Meretites I
    Mersuankh (G 8990)
    Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)
    Neferirkare
    Niankhre (G 8130)
    Niuserre
    Pehenptah (G 5280)
    Penmeru (G 2197)
    Pepi (D 23)
    Ptahshepses [I] (Ptahshepses [I])
    Rashepses (in D 23)
    Rawer (G 8988)
    Seshemnefer [III] (G 5170)
    Seshemnefer [I] (G 4940)
    Snefru
    Tepemankh (D 20)
  • Editor
    Hourig Sourouzian
    Rainer Stadelmann, German
  • Author
    Marianne Eaton-Krauss
  • Publisher
    Verlag Philipp Von Zabern

Finds 18

People 28

Ancient People

  • Amendjefaes (in G 4940)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Seshemnefer [I] (owner of G 4940). Appears in chapel relief (west and north walls), identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in G 4940. Mother of Pehenptah (owner of G 5280). Limestone standing pair statue (12-10-3 = KHM Vienna ÄS 7502) inscribed for Pehenptah and his mother Amendjefaes; found in G 5280 serdab. Shattered triad statue (12-10-4 = MFA 13.4330 triad + 12-10-4 = MFA 13.4358 fragment of female figure + 12-11-22 = MFA 13.3160 fragment of male figure proper right) of Pehenptah and his mother Amendjefaes; found in G 5280 serdab (some fragments from outside serdab).
  • Autib (in D 20)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife (?) of Tepemankh (owner of D 20). Standing triad or pseudo-group statue (GEM_1077 = Cairo JE 37826): two male figures identified as Tepemankh (possibly father and son), one female figure identified as [rxt nswt] "royal acquaintance" Autib; found in D 20 serdab (a).
  • Babaef (G 5230)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 5230. Name translated as either Khnumbaef or Babaef, identified variously as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj-pat HAtj-a smr watj jmj-r kAt nb nswt xrp aH tAjtj sAb TAtj Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp Hm-nTr Hr THnw qA-a wr idt Hm st Hm jAqs Hm Hpwj (Hm) Hr SwA Hrj-sStA n mdw-nTr smsw snwt xt wr] king's son of his body, hereditary prince, count, sole companion, overseer of all royal works, director of the palace, chief justice and vizier, chief lector-priest, priest of Horus of Libya, elevated of arm, great of censing, servant of the throne, priest of the akes-ornament, priest of Hepwy, priest of Horus-Shewa(?), secretary of the sacred writings, elder of the snwt-house, khet-priest of the Great One. Six damaged limestone standing statues (14-11-92 = MFA 34.1461, 14-11-93 = MFA 34.235, 14-11-94 = MFA 21.953a-b, 14-11-95 = MFA 21.955a-b, 14-11-96 = MFA 21954a-b deaccessioned = MMA 64.66.2, 14-11-97 = MFA 21.956a-b deaccessioned = MMA 64.66.1) inscribed for Babaef; found in G 5230 S (= S chapel/serdab) SS-2. Four limestone statue bases (14-11-78, 14-11-79 = MFA 14.1686, 14-11-80 = MFA 14.1687, 14-11-81) inscribed for Babaef; found in G 5230 S (= S chapel/serdab) SS-1. Fragmentary black granite seated scribe statue (14-11-151 + 14-12-7 + 14-12-82 = MFA 21.931a-c) inscribed for Babaef; pieces found scattered in G 5230 S (= S chapel/serdab) room O, pit G 5221 A, and pit G 5211 A. Fragmentary incomplete red granite standing pair statue (14-11-84 = MFA 14.1688 + 14-11-89a = MFA 14.1690.1 + 14-11-89b = MFA 14.1690.2 + 14-11-89c = MFA 14.1690.3 + 14-11-117 = MFA 14.1960.2 + 14-11-118 = MFA 14.1697) inscribed for Babaef; pieces found scattered in G 5230 S (= S chapel/serdab) SS-1 and SS-2, and between mastabas G 5110 and G 5230. Fragmentary alabaster standing statue (fragments from 14-2-2 + 14-2-4 + 14-3-1 = MFA 24.603 reconstructed statue) inscribed for Babaef; found scattered in vicinity of G 4620 and G 4820. Fragments of alabaster seated statue (15-1-41) inscribed for Babaef; found between mastabas G 5110 and G 5230. Fragment of limestone statue base (33-2-170) inscribed for Babaef; found E of G 2370. Alabaster standing statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 7785) inscribed for Babaef; head of alabaster statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 7786) attributed to Babaef; lower part of granodiorite seated statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 8567) inscribed for Babaef; fragment of granodiorite standing statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 8566) inscribed for Babaef; all found in debris at north end of G 5230.
  • Hetepib (G 1022)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Probable owner of G 1022. Limestone standing pair statue (Hearst 6-19781) inscribed for Hetepib and his wife Setepet; Hetepib identified as [sHD wabt] inspector of the wabet; found between G 1022 and G 1025 (corridor chapel of G 1022), attributed to G 1022 (incorrectly attributed to G 1032 in Porter-Moss III, p. 54). Limestone offering basin (Hearst 6-19761) inscribed for Hetepib (dedicated by his son Inkaf), identified as [sHD Hmwtjw wabt jmj-r mDw Hmwtjw wabt rx nswt] inspector of craftsmen of the wabet, overseer of ten craftsmen of the wabet, royal acquaintance; found displaced in G 1032, attributed to G 1022 (attributed to G 1032 with name incorrectly spelled Iunkaf in Porter-Moss III, p. 54). Pair statue of Hetepib and Setepet (Hearst 6-19781) and pair statue of Inkaf (Hearst 6-19782) found E of G 1022 (between G 1022 and G 1025) (in situ: A10828_OS – A10832_OS, C10240_OS – C10243_OS, C10591_OS, C13270-01A_OS). Offering basin inscribed for Hetepib, dedicated by his son Inkaf (Hearst 6-19761) found in disturbed context at S end of G 1032 (in situ: C10244_OS, C10245_OS, C133056-01_OS; this would appear to be pit A, see cemetery area plan EG000500). Reisner originally (tentatively) attributed the offering basin to G 1022 (GN2_K01_ChapIX_p083), probably based on the findspot of the two pair statues. Reisner later revised his opinion and attributed the two pair statues to G 1032 (GN3_L04_p062), despite the fact that G 1022 is the primary mastaba with G 1032 built (abutting N end of G 1022) at a later date, that the statues were found in "the debris of the chapel of G 1022" (GN3_L03_p023, GN3_L04_p006), and that the offering basin was not in situ in G 1032. It seems more likely that all of the inscribed material (statues, offering basin) originated in G 1022 chapel.
  • Inkaf (G 8520)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
  • Iskha (in G 8172)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Central figure of limestone statue group of three seated men, identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; found in debris of inner chapel of G 8172.
  • Khafre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khufu

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Meretites I

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife of Khufu and mother of Kawab (G 7120), Meresankh [II] (G 7410) and Meretites (G 7650). Appeared with her son on west wall of G 7120 chapel room b (tomb of Kawab), three fragments (24-12-1000, 24-12-1002 and possibly 24-12-1122) may belong to this scene; fragments found displaced in G 7120 chapel rooms c and d and space in between.
  • Mersuankh (G 8990)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8990. Chapel lintel, door jambs and reveals inscribed for Mersuankh, identified as [jmj-r jdw n Xnw sHD Hmw-kA nfr] overseer of young men of the Residence, inspector of ka-priests, cadet; in situ in G 8990. False door inscribed for Mersuankh, identified as [Dt smr rawr jmj-r jdw n Xnw jmj-r jSt=f nbt n Xnw nt rwt] djet-priest of the companion Rawer, overseer of young men of the Residence, overseer of all his (Rawer's) possessions of the Residence and the exterior; in situ in G 8990. Four limestone offering tables inscribed for Mersuankh; in situ before false door. Also appears on false door of his mother Rudjsaus, and in wall reliefs and statuary (JE 66617-66620) from serdabs and shafts; in situ in G 8990.
  • Nebemakhet (G 8172 and Lepsius 12)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8172 (Lepsius 86) and Lepsius 12. Son of Khafre and Meresankh III. Fragmentary entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Nebemakhet, identified as [sS mDAt(-nTr) smsw snwt n jt=f tAjtj sAb TAtj jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xt wr xt (?)] scribe of the (divine) book, elder of the snwt-house of his father, chief justice and vizier, hereditary prince, king's son of his body, chief lector-priest, khet-priest of the Great One, khet-priest of (?); found fallen in debris in front of entrance of G 8172. Originally appeared in chapel relief seated with his sister (neither figure preserved) on southern wall of outer chapel, identified as [sS mDAt-nTr n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] scribe of the divine book of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in G 8172. Appears with his mother and sister above doorway in eastern wall of inner chapel, identified as [smr watj] sole companion, and with his wife on same wall, identified as [Hrj-sStA n jt=f] secretary of his father; in situ in G 8172. Originally appeared with his wife (figures not preserved) on southern wall of inner chapel; in situ in G 8172. Nebemakhet's name and titles also appear on fragments of relief originally from northern wall of inner chapel; found in debris of chapel of G 8172. Also entrance architrave, drum and jambs (very poorly preserved) originally inscribed for Nebemakhet (name partially preserved on northern door jamb), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt n Xt=f smr watj] hereditary prince, king's son of his body, sole companion; in situ in Lepsius 12. Also attested (main room, west wall) in tomb of his mother Meresankh III (G 7530-7540), and on back pillar (MFA 30.1457a) of fragmentary limestone statue of her; found in debris of forecourt of G 7530-7540.
  • Neferirkare

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 5.
  • Niankhre (G 8130)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8130. Entrance architrave and drum inscribed for Niankhre, identified as [sA nswt smr watj Hrj-sStA n pr-dwAt Hrj-sStA nswt m swt=f nbt jmj-jb n nb=f mrr nb=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-sStA n mdw-nTr jmj-r kAt nbt nt nswt Xrj-tp nswt smsw js jwn-knmwt mdw rxjjt xrp wsxt wD wDa-mdw mAa n Hrjw-wDbw] king's son, sole companion, secretary of the House of Morning, secretary of the king in all his places, he who is in the heart of his lord, beloved of his lord, lector-priest, secretary of the sacred writings, overseer of all royal works, royal chamberlain, elder of the is-chamber, iun-kenmut priest, staff of the commoners, director of the broad hall, true giver of judgements to the masters of reversion-offerings; in situ in G 8130.
  • Niuserre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks King of Dynasty 5.
  • Pehenptah (G 5280)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 5280. False door inscribed for Pehenptah; found in situ in G 5280. Limestone drum lintel (39-9-2) inscribed for Pehenptah, identified as [rx nswt sS a n nswt] royal acquaintance, royal document scribe; found displaced in G 5280. Limestone standing statue (12-10-2 = Cairo JE 44609) inscribed for Pehenptah and limestone standing pair statue (12-10-3 = KHM Vienna ÄS 7502) inscribed for Pehenptah and his mother Amendjefaes; both found in G 5280 serdab. Shattered triad statue (12-10-4 = MFA 13.4330 triad + 12-10-4 = MFA 13.4358 fragment of female figure + 12-11-22 = MFA 13.3160 fragment of male figure proper right) of Pehenptah and his mother Amendjefaes; found in G 5280 serdab with some fragments from outside serdab. Son of Seshemnefer [I] (owner of G 4940). Appears in chapel relief, west wall (between false doors, north end, lower register, second figure from left); in situ in G 4940.
  • Penmeru (G 2197)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2197. Testamentary decree of Penmeru (south wall of niche), identified as [wab nswt Hm-nTr mnkAwra jmj-r Hmw-kA] royal wab-priest, priest of Menkaure, overseer of ka-priests; in situ in G 2197. Limestone triad (MFA 12.1504) representing Penmeru in three Ka forms, identified as [rx nswt xrp sH] royal acquaintance, director of the dining hall; limestone pseudo-group statue (MFA 12.1484) depicting two figures of Penmeru, his wife Meretites, his son Seshemnefer, and his daughter Neferseshemes; Penmeru identified as [sHD Hmw-kA rx nswt xrp sH] inspector of ka-priests, royal acquaintance, director of the dining hall; limestone standing pair statue (Cairo JE 43753) depicting two figures of Penmeru; statues found in situ in G 2197 serdab.
  • Pepi (D 23)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner (?) of D 23. Limestone standing group statue (Hildesheim 17) of Pepi and two male figures (her sons ?), both named Rashepses; Pepi identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; found displaced in D 23, shaft 5. There are three possibilities as to who is actually represented in this statue: 1) Rashepses, his wife Pepi, and their son Rashepses. If this is true, then the craftsman who inscribed the piece switched the two Rashepses inscriptions, labeling the man as [sA=s raSpss] "her son Rashepses" and the boy as [wab nswt raSpss] "royal wab-priest Rashepses". This seems unlikely because the focal point of the group (the central, largest figure) is clearly Pepi, which would be quite unusual in a normal family statue. Also, the son is labeled "her son", not "his son" or "their son". 2) A so-called "pseudo-group", representing Pepi with her son Rashepses who appears twice at different ages. If this is the case, then the labels are more understandable; as a small boy, his size, nakedness and side lock all indicate that Rashepses must be the son of a nearby adult (i.e. Pepi) without it needing to be spelled out. However, the larger figure of Rashepses which appears completely adult and could be mistaken for a husband of Pepi (indeed, see above) requires the label "her son" to make clear his role in the family. The problem with this interpretation is that the statue is clearly focused on Pepi, rather than her son, and in pseudo-groups the repeated figure is most often the statue owner and most important figure. 3) Pepi, with her TWO sons, both of whom are named Rashepses. This giving more than one child the same name is not that unusual, although it is by no means the norm in the Old Kingdom. In that case, the reasoning used above holds true (the child figure does not require [sA=s] because it is clear that he is a son, while the adult figure needs the label for clarity). SInce it is hard to believe that a wife would be shown in the center of a group statue towering over her husband, or that she would have such an important position in a pseudo-group where her son was the duplicated figure (and hence, probably the commissioner of the piece), it seems most likely that Pepi was the dedicator of the piece, which would explain her depiction with two juvenile sons and why she was the main figure of the group.
  • Ptahshepses [I] (Ptahshepses [I])

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Ptahshepses [I] (unnumbered mastaba excavated by Junker). Limestone standing statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 7503) inscribed for Ptahshepses, identified as [sHD Hmw-kA] inspector of ka-priests, and limestone standing pair statue (KHM Vienna ÄS 7501) inscribed for Ptahshepses and his wife Redines; found in situ in mastaba of Ptahshepses [I] serdab 2 (S 2).
  • Rashepses (in D 23)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears as one of two male figures named Rashepses in limestone standing group statue (Hildesheim 17) of Pepi and her sons (?); Rashepses identified as [wab nswt] royal wab-priest; found displaced in D 23, shaft 5. There are three possibilities as to who is actually represented in this statue: 1) Rashepses, his wife Pepi, and their son Rashepses. If this is true, then the craftsman who inscribed the piece switched the two Rashepses inscriptions, labeling the man as [sA=s raSpss] "her son Rashepses" and the boy as [wab nswt raSpss] "royal wab-priest Rashepses". This seems unlikely because the focal point of the group (the central, largest figure) is clearly Pepi, which would be quite unusual in a normal family statue. Also, the son is labeled "her son", not "his son" or "their son". 2) A so-called "pseudo-group", representing Pepi with her son Rashepses who appears twice at different ages. If this is the case, then the labels are more understandable; as a small boy, his size, nakedness and side lock all indicate that Rashepses must be the son of a nearby adult (i.e. Pepi) without it needing to be spelled out. However, the larger figure of Rashepses which appears completely adult and could be mistaken for a husband of Pepi (indeed, see above) requires the label "her son" to make clear his role in the family. The problem with this interpretation is that the statue is clearly focused on Pepi, rather than her son, and in pseudo-groups the repeated figure is most often the statue owner and most important figure. 3) Pepi, with her TWO sons, both of whom are named Rashepses. This giving more than one child the same name is not that unusual, although it is by no means the norm in the Old Kingdom. In that case, the reasoning used above holds true (the child figure does not require [sA=s] because it is clear that he is a son, while the adult figure needs the label for clarity). SInce it is hard to believe that a wife would be shown in the center of a group statue towering over her husband, or that she would have such an important position in a pseudo-group where her son was the duplicated figure (and hence, probably the commissioner of the piece), it seems most likely that Pepi was the dedicator of the piece, which would explain her depiction with two juvenile sons and why she was the main figure of the group.
  • Rawer (G 8988)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 8988. Son of Itisen and Hetepheres. Entrance architrave, lintel and facade inscribed for Rawer, identified as [smr watj Hrj-tp nxb Hm-nTr Hr-jnpw xntj pr Smswt watj aD-mr Hr sbA xntj pt sm xrp SnDt xt mnw xrp aH Hrj-sStA n pr(-dwAt) Xrj-Hb wa m wrw Hb xrp Hwwt nt mw aD-mr dp Hm-nTr wADt jrj nfr-HAt] sole companion, chief of Nekheb, priest of Horus-Anubis who presides solely over the suite, administrator of the district 'Star-of-Horus-Foremost-of-Heaven', sem-priest, director of the kilt, khet-priest of Min, director of the palace, secretary of the House (of Morning), lector-priest, sole one of the great ones of the festival, director of mansions of mu-textiles(?), administrator of Dep, priest of Wadjet, keeper of the diadem; facade in situ, lintel and architrave fallen in front of entrance to G 8988. Inner door jambs inscribed for Rawer, identified as [jmj-r Xkrw nswt n jswj overseer of the king's ornaments in the two chambers; in situ in G 8988. Inscription along top of eastern wall of serdab 14 with titles [Hm-nTr nxbt Hm-ntr wADt smr watj n(j) mrwt] priest of Nekhbet, priest of Wadjet, sole companion, possessor of love; in situ in G 8988. Rawer appears on alabaster panel (JE 66626) in niche 14, identified as [Hrj-sStA n mdw-nTr] secretary of the sacred writings; in situ in G 8988. Inscribed limestone slab with title [Hm-nTr wADt p dp] priest of Wadjet in Pe and Dep; found displaced in G 8988. Inscribed limestone slab with title [jmj-r wabt] overseer of the wabet; found fallen from wall of first chamber of eastern passage in G 8988. Life-size limestone statue of Rawer, inscribed [jrj nfr-HAt (smsw?) wxrt aAt jr Sn nswt] keeper of the diadem, (elder?) of the great shipyard, royal hairdresser; found in back of second chamber of eastern passage in G 8988. Life-size limestone statue of Rawer, inscribed [jmj-jb n nb=f Hrj-sStA n nswt] he who is in the heart of his lord, secretary of the king; found in situ in serdab 12 of G 8988, along with limestone relief of biographical inscription (JE 66682). A large number of other inscribed statues and fragments of Rawer and his family found throughout G 8988 (including JE 66615, a quartzite "pseudo-group" statue of Rawer, and JE 66625, a limestone statue head of Rawer).
  • Seshemnefer [III] (G 5170)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 5170. North and south false doors inscribed for Seshemnefer; also appears in chapel relief (west, south, east walls); identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f tAjtj sAb Tatj] king's son of his body, chief justice and vizier; chapel (Tübingen 3) found in situ in G 5170. Son ([sA=f] his son) of Seshemnefer [II] (owner of G 5080) and Henutsen. Appears in chapel relief, west wall (between false doors, kneeling beneath chair, figure on right), south wall (upper register of three registers fully preserved, figure on left), and east wall (depicted as young boy standing in front of his father), identified as [jmj-r sSw a nswt] overseer of royal document scribes; in situ in G 5080.
  • Seshemnefer [I] (G 4940)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4940. North and south false doors inscribed for Seshemnefer; also appears in chapel relief (north, west, east, and south walls), identified as [rx nswt Xrj-tp nswt Hwt Hr-xpr xt HA Hm-nTr Hqt Hm-nTr Hr THnw qA-a sAb aD-mr wr mDw Sma Hrj-sStA jmj-r kAt nt nswt jmj-r sSw Xr-a nswt Hrj-wDbw m Hwt-anx jmj-r stj-DfAw smr Hm-nTr jnpw xrp aH] royal acquaintance, royal chamberlain of the funerary temple of Horkheper (Djedefre), khet-priest of Ha, priest of Heqet, priest of Horus of Libya, elevated of arm, judge and administrator, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, secretary, overseer of royal works, overseer of scribes of the royal portfolios, master of reversion-offerings in the Mansion of Life, overseer of the two places of provisions, companion, priest of Anubis, director of the palace; in situ in G 4940.
  • Snefru

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks First king of Dynasty 4. Father of Khufu.
  • Tepemankh (D 20)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of D 20. Drum lintel (Berlin 1138) inscribed for Tepemankh, identified as [rx nswt jmj-r st n xntj-S pr-aA] royal acquaintance, overseer of the department of palace attendants of the Great House; found in D 20 (removed by Lepsius). False door (Theodore Pitcairn Collection, Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania) inscribed for Tepemankh, identified as [Hm-nTr xwfw] priest of Khufu; found in D 20. Relief fragment of south wall (Paris, Louvre E 11161), showing seated Tepemankh and wife Autib receiving offerings from their sons [sA=f] Qaiptah, Khenuka, Kanitef, and Tepemankh; found in D 20. Standing triad or pseudo-group statue (GEM_1077 = Cairo JE 37826): two male figures identified as Tepemankh (possibly father and son - father identified as [jmj-r st xntj-S pr-aA] overseer of the department of palace attendants of the Great House), one female figure identified as Autib; found in D 20 serdab (a).

Modern People

  • Hourig Sourouzian

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates
    • Remarks Director of the Colossi of Memnon and Amenhotep III Temple Conservation Project.
  • Marianne Eaton-Krauss

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates
    • Remarks Egyptologist at the Berlin Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
  • Rainer Stadelmann

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates German
    • Remarks Egyptologist

Institutions 1