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Details

  • Format
    Article
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Year Published
    2008
  • Citation Text
    Brovarski, Edward. "A Second Style in Egyptian Relief of the Old Kingdom." In Stephen E. Thomson and Peter Der Manuelian, eds. Egypt and Beyond. Essays Presented to Leonard H. Lesko upon his Retirement from the Wilbour Chair of Egyptology at Brown University June 2005, Providence: Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, 2008, pp. 49-89.
  • Individual - Ancient
    Gefi (in G 7101)
    Idu (G 7102)
    Khnumenti (G 2374)
    Merptahankh-meryre Nekhebu (G 2381)
    Qar (G 7101)
  • Editor
    Peter Der Manuelian, 1959–
    Stephen E. Thompson, American
  • Author
    Edward Brovarski
  • Individual - Modern
    Edna Russmann
  • Publisher
    Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, Brown University

Tombs and Monuments 2

  • G 2381

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 7101

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery

Finds 16

People 9

Ancient People

  • Gefi (in G 7101)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f mrt=f] his beloved wife) of Qar (owner of G 7101). Appears in chapel relief, court C (west wall); in situ in G 7101.
  • Idu (G 7102)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7102. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, statuary), identified variously as [jmj-r Hwt wrt jmj-r sSw mrt xntj-S mnnfr-ppj Xrj tp nswt] overseer of the great chapel, overseer of scribes of the meret-serfs, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Pepi, he who is at the head of the king; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Idu (in G 7101), son of Qar (owner of G 7101). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.
  • Khnumenti (G 2374)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2374 (possibly buried in sloping-passage shaft G 2385 A). Son ([sA=f n Xt=f] son of his body) of Senedjemib Inti (owner of G 2370); father of Merptahankh-meryre Nekhebu (?) (owner of G 2381, buried in sloping-passage shaft G 2382 A). False door inscribed for Khnumenti, identified as [smr watj mdw rxjjt jwn-knmwt jmj-r wabtj jmj-r prwj nbw Hrj-sStA n nswt jmj-r Snwtj mrj nb=f m tAwj=f jmj-jb nswt m kAt=f nbt jmj-r prwj-HD] sole companion, staff of the commoners, iun-kenmut priest, overseer of the two wabets, overseer of the two houses of gold, royal secretary, overseer of the two granaries, beloved of his lord in his Two Lands, he who is in the heart of the king in all his works, overseer of the two treasuries; in situ in G 2374. Chapel architrave inscribed for Khnumenti and appears in chapel relief (facade and through out chapel), identified as [jrj-pat HAtj-a tAjtj sAb TAtj jmj-r kAt nbt nt nswt mDH qd nswt m prwj Xrj-tp nswt Hrj-sStA wDt-mdw nbt nt nswt jmj-jb nswt jmj-r sSw a n nswt jmj-r Hwt-wrt sjsw sHD Hmw-nTr Dd-swt-sA-ra-ttj] hereditary prince, count, chief justice and vizier, overseer of all royal works, royal architect in the two houses, royal chamberlain, secretary of every royal decree, he who is in the heart of the king, overseer of royal document scribes, overseer of the six great law-courts, inspector of priests of the pyramid of Teti; some blocks in situ, others found loose in G 2374. Also appears in chapel relief in tomb of his father Senedjemib Inti (owner of G 2370), first antechamber (= room II, west wall, standing behind his father [bottom register]); this scene now almost completely destroyed (only lowest register still in situ in G 2370), but was drawn in its entirety by Lepsius. Khnumenti likely also appeared in lowest registers of south and/or north walls of offering room (= room IV), but inscriptions are illegible.
  • Merptahankh-meryre Nekhebu (G 2381)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 2381, buried in sloping-passage shaft G 2382 A. Son of Khnumenti (?) (owner of G 2374). Father of Merptahankh-meryre Ptahshepses Impy, Sabuptah Ibebi, and Tjemat; Nekhebu identified variously as [jmj-r kAt jmj-r kAt nbt nt nswt jmj-r wpwt nswt mnnfr-mrjra ppj jmj-r xntjw-S mnnfr-mrjra ppj jmj-r qdw aA dwAw mtj n sA mDH nswt mDH nswt qdw mDH nswt qdw m prwj Hrj-sStA n wabtj xrp SnDt nbt Xrj-Hb Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp Xrj-tp nswt sm smr watj smsw snwt sHD qdw Sps nswt qdw n aSAt qdw m prwj kAwtj] overseer of works, overseer of all royal works, overseer of royal commissions of the pyramid of Pepi I, overseer of palace attendants of the pyramid of Pepi I, overseer of builders, assistant of (the god) Duau, regulator of a phyle, royal carpenter, royal architect, royal architect in the two houses, secretary of the two wabets, director of every kilt, lector-priest, chief lector-priest, royal chamberlain, sem-priest, sole companion, elder of the snwt-house, inspector of builders, noble of the king, ordinary builder, builder in the two houses, workman. Appears in chapel relief and wall paintings: 1) relief scene (13-3-545 = MFA 13.4335) probably from lintel depicting six standing figures (three facing right, three facing left) of Nekhebu holding staff and scepter with columns of hieroglyphic text between figures identifying Nekhebu with his names, titles, and honorific epithets; 2) painted scene (13-1-546 = MFA 13.4339) of at least three registers depicting Nekhebu striding to right with name and titles in black in front of each figure; 3) autobiographical inscription of Nekhebu (13-1-547 = MFA 13.4331) with eight vertical columns and one horizontal line of text above seated figure of Nekhebu (facing left); 4) autobiographical inscription of Nekhebu (13-1-548 = MFA 13.5969 + Cairo JE 44608) with ten vertical columns and one horizontal line of text above seated figure of Nekhebu (facing right); 5) relief scene (13-1-549 = MFA 13.4331 + possibly one fragment from 13-1-558a = MFA 13.5975) from wall adjoining autobiographical inscription (13-1-547) depicting Nekhebu spear fishing in marsh; 6) relief scene (13-1-550 = MFA 13.4351) depicting figure of Nekhebu (facing right, only top of head preserved) with five vertical columns of inscription (above) and offering list (in front); 7) two door jambs (13-1-551: left jamb = MFA 13.4348; right jamb = MFA 13.4349) depicting standing figures of Nekhebu with accompanying inscription; 8) relief scene (13-1-553 + 13-1-556j + 13-1-558i = MFA 13.5834) depicting aging Nekhebu kneeling in boat in marsh; 9) relief scene (13-1-554 = MFA 13.4349) from section of facade adjoining right door jamb (13-1-551) depicting registers of Nile boats, on one boat in middle register (MFA 13.4349.2) seated figure of Nekhebu faced by his wife Hatkau playing harp; 10) relief scene (13-1-555 = MFA 13.4346 + possibly 13-1-558d = MFA 13.5974) depicting seated figure of Nekhebu (facing right) and three registers of offering bearers (facing left) leading cattle and gazelle; 11) relief scene (13-1-555 + 13-1-556 + 13-1-558o = MFA 13.5830) depicting Nekhebu seated in carrying chair; 12) relief scene (13-1-556d + 13-1-558j = MFA 13.5934) depicting seated figure of Nekhebu (facing right) and two registers of family members and offering bearers (facing left); 13) relief scene (13-1-556l + 13-1-558k = MFA 13.5935) depicting seated figure of Nekhebu (facing left) with vertical columns of inscription above; 14) relief scene (13-1-558l = MFA 13.5936) depicting seated figure of Nekhebu (facing right) with vertical columns of inscription above (original position to left of section of facade with ceremonial dancers and offering bearers MFA 13.4348). Chapel almost completely destroyed with most blocks and fragments of relief and inscription found scattered in Senedjemib Complex court (G 2382). Fragmentary limestone seated statue (12-12-14 + 12-12-22 = MFA 13.3161a-b) inscribed for Nekhebu, identified as [smr watj mDH qd nswt m prwj] sole companion, royal architect in the two houses; fragments found scattered in Senedjemib Complex court (G 2382). Fragmentary limestone seated statue (12-11-26) inscribed for Nekhebu, identified as [smr watj mDH qd nswt m prwj] sole companion, royal architect in the two houses; fragments found scattered in G 2370 and Senedjemib Complex court (G 2382). Fragment of limestone seated statue (12-12-595 = MFA 13.3159) inscribed for Nekhebu, identified as [smr watj mDH qd nswt m prwj] sole companion, royal architect in the two houses; found in debris west of G 2381 A. Fragmentary incomplete limestone seated statue (12-11-58 + 12-12-176a = MFA 13.3149a-c), preserved fragments uninscribed, attributed to Nekhebu; fragments found scattered in G 2381. Fragment of limestone seated statue (12-12-9 = MFA 13.3156), preserved fragment uninscribed, attributed to Nekhebu; found in Senedjemib Complex court (G 2382). Fragment of limestone seated statue (12-12-16 = MFA 13.3154), preserved fragment uninscribed, attributed to Nekhebu; found in G 2381. Limestone obelisk (12-12-23 = MFA 13.4353 deaccessioned = Memphis 1981.1.5) inscribed for Nekhebu, identified as [jmj-r kAt nbt nt nswt smr watj] overseer of all royal works, sole companion; found in Senedjemib Complex court (G 2382). Fragments of diorite offering table (12-12-20 = MFA 13.3143a-b) inscribed for Nekhebu; found in Senedjemib Complex court (G 2382).
  • Qar (G 7101)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7101. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, pillar), identified variously as [jmj-r kAt nbt xntj-S mnnfr-mrjjra Xrj tp nswt sS a nswt xft-Hr mAa] overseer of all works, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Meryre (Pepi I), he who is at the head of the king, true royal document scribe in the presence; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Qar (in G 7102), son of Idu (owner of G 7102). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.

Modern People

  • Edna Russmann

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates
    • Remarks Egyptologist; proponent of the "Second Style" in late Old Kingdom sculpture.
  • Edward Brovarski

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates
    • Remarks Egyptologist and co-director of the Cairo University-Brown University Excavations (CBE) in the Abu Bakr Cemetery.
  • Peter Der Manuelian

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates 1959–
    • Remarks Giza Archives Project Director, 2000-2011; Giza Project at Harvard Director, 2011-present.
  • Stephen E. Thompson

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates American

Institutions 1