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*The original, paper version of this page in “Chapter 15: Chronological Order of Finished Mastabas in the Giza Necropolis” can be found in archival box K14 in the Egyptian Section archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Details

  • Classification
    Documentation-Unpublished manuscripts
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Date
    about 1934—1942
  • Mentioned on page
    Selim Hassan (Bey), Egyptian, 1886–1961
    Bunefer (G 8408)
    Iasen (G 2196)
    Idu (G 7102)
    Iuenmin (G 8080)
    Kadjeded (Service tomb 1)
    Kai (G 8720)
    Kameni (G 8664)
    Khafre
    Khafreankh (G 7948)
    Khamerernebty [I] (in G 8978)
    Khentkaus [I] (G 8400)
    Khuenre (MQ 1)
    Khufu
    Khuwiwer (G 8674)
    Menkaure
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Netjerpunisut (G 8740)
    Pepi I
    Qar (G 7101)
    Rawer (G 8988)
    Rekhetre (G 8530)
    Userkaf
  • Author
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942

Tombs and Monuments 5

  • Cemetery G 7000

    • Site Name Eastern Cemetery
  • G 2196

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 5040

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 8988

    • Site Name Central Field (Hassan)
  • MQ 1

    • Site Name Menkaure Quarry Cemetery

Photos 1

People 24

Ancient People

  • Bunefer (G 8408)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8408. Daughter or wife of Shepseskaf. Southern, middle and northern chapel entrance lintels and drums, and northern and southern pilasters, inscribed for Bunefer, identified as [Hmt nswt wrt Hts Hm-nTr Spss-nbtj mAAt Hr stX sAt nswt n (Xt=f) Hm-nTr Hr (Spss-Xt) Hst wrt Hm-nTr TAspf] king's wife, great one of the hetes-sceptre, priestess of Shepses-Nebty (Shepseskaf), seer of Horus and Seth, king's daughter of (his body), priestess of the Horus Shepses-khet (Shepseskaf), great favorite, priestess of (the god) Tjasepef; in situ in G 8408. Secondary chapel entrance lintel and drum inscribed for Bunefer, identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-sceptre; in situ in G 8408. Also appears on limestone relief fragments, identified as [Hm-nTr HwtHr] priestess of Hathor; found displaced in chapel debris of G 8408.
  • Iasen (G 2196)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 2196. Architectural elements: chapel outer entrance lintel inscribed for Iasen, identified as [jmj-r sjs xntjw-S pr-aA (jmj-r) Hrjw-a a nw nswt wab nswt sHD wabw xntj-S Hrj-sStA Hm-nTr xwfw] overseer of six palace attendants of the Great House, overseer of the authorisations of the royal decrees, royal wab-priest, inspector of wab-priests, palace attendant, secretary, priest of Khufu; drum lintel and south door jamb (name of male figure not preserved on north door jamb) inscribed for Iasen, identified as [sHD wabw xntj-S Hrj-sStA Hm-nTr xwfw rx nswt] inspector of wab-priests, palace attendant, secretary, priest of Khufu, royal acquaintance; chapel inner entrance door jambs uninscribed; also appears in chapel relief (north, south, east, and west walls) and rock-cut statue (west wall); in situ in G 2196.
  • Idu (G 7102)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7102. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, statuary), identified variously as [jmj-r Hwt wrt jmj-r sSw mrt xntj-S mnnfr-ppj Xrj tp nswt] overseer of the great chapel, overseer of scribes of the meret-serfs, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Pepi, he who is at the head of the king; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Idu (in G 7101), son of Qar (owner of G 7101). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.
  • Iuenmin (G 8080)

    • Type Mentioned on page
  • Kadjeded (Service tomb 1)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner(?) of Service tomb 1. Red granite chapel entrance drum lintel inscribed for Kadjeded, identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f] king's son of his body; found fallen in entrance of Service tomb 1.
  • Kai (G 8720)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8720. Entrance jambs and reveals (poorly preserved) inscribed for Kai, identified as [sa nswt jmj-r Xnw xtmw nTr wjA] king's son, overseer of the residence, god's sealer of the ship; in situ in G 8720. Inner chapel entrance lintel inscribed for Kai; in situ in G 8720. Also three model alabaster cups inscribed for [sA nswt kAj] king's son Kai; found displaced in G 8720. Possibly same individual as Kai (in G III-a temple), a descendent of Queen Khamerernebti II, based on five model alabaster vessels found in G III-a temple, inscribed for [sA nswt kAj] king's son Kai.
  • Kameni (G 8664)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8664. Entrance lintel and door reveals inscribed for Kameni, identified as [HqA nswt] manager of the king; in situ in G 8664. Two false doors inscribed for Kameni, identified as [HqA nswt] manager of the king; in situ in G 8664.
  • Khafre

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khafreankh (G 7948)

    • Type Mentioned on page
  • Khamerernebty [I] (in G 8978)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Mother of Khamerernebty [II] and Menkaure and wife of Khafre (Chephren). Identified on entrance lintel as [mwt nswt-bjtj sAt nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] mother of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god; found above entrance to G 8978, possibly not in situ.
  • Khentkaus [I] (G 8400)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8400. Possible daughter of Menkaure. Chapel entrance door jambs and fragments of false door inscribed for Khentkaus, identified as [mwt nswt-bjtj nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] mother of the two kings of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god; in situ in G 8400. Alternately the titles may read [nswt-bjtj mwt nswt-bjtj sAt nTr] king of Upper and Lower Egypt, mother of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, daughter of the god.
  • Khuenre (MQ 1)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of MQ 1. Son of Menkaure and Khamerernebty [II]. Appears in chapel relief, west wall (unnamed), east and south walls (depicted as young naked boy standing in front of his seated mother Khamerernebti on south wall), identified as [sA nswt smsw n Xt=f xrj-sStA n jt=f smr watj n jt=f] king's eldest son of his body, secretary of his father, sole companion of his father; in situ in Menkaure quarry cemetery MQ 1 = MQ 137. Limestone seated scribe statue (13-1-560 = MFA 13.3140) inscribed for Khuenre; found in Menkaure quarry cemetery MQ 1 = MQ 137.
  • Khufu

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Khuwiwer (G 8674)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8674. Son of Mes-sa (owner of G 8668). Entrance drum lintel inscribed for Mes-sa (identified as [smr watj xrp aH] sole companion, director of the palace) and Khuwiwer (identified as [sAb jmj-r sSw] juridicial overseer of scribes); found in entrance debris of G 8674. Biographical inscription of Khuwiwer on northern and southern walls of antechamber; in situ in G 8674. Chapel entrance architrave, drum lintel and door jambs inscribed for Khuwiwer, identified as [sAb sHD sSw n Hwtj wrtj jmj wrt nt Xnw xrp sSw jrjw jaH] juridicial inspector of scribes in the two great courts (of justice) amongst those on the right-hand side(?) of the Residence, director of scribes connected with the moon. Also appears in chapel wall relief (east, north and west walls); all in situ in G 8674. False door inscribed for Khuwiwer; in situ in G 8674. Lower part of schist seated statue inscribed for Khuwiwer; found in chapel debris of G 8674. Lower part of granite seated statue inscribed for Khuwiwer, identified as [sAb sHD sSw] juridicial inspector of scribes; found in filling of southern serdab of G 8674. Uninscribed limestone head (JE 72221), probably of Khuwiwer; found in G 8674, shaft 973. Statue base inscribed for Khuwiwer, identified as [sAb jmj-r sSw] juridicial overseer of scribes; found in shaft 35 of G 8972.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Netjerpunisut (G 8740)

    • Type Mentioned on page
  • Pepi I

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 6.
  • Qar (G 7101)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 7101. Appears multiple times in tomb decoration (chapel relief, architrave, door jambs, pillar), identified variously as [jmj-r kAt nbt xntj-S mnnfr-mrjjra Xrj tp nswt sS a nswt xft-Hr mAa] overseer of all works, palace attendant of (the pyramid-town) Mennefer-Meryre (Pepi I), he who is at the head of the king, true royal document scribe in the presence; in situ in G 7102. Possibly same individual as Qar (in G 7102), son of Idu (owner of G 7102). The relationship between Qar and Idu is difficult to determine; it seems certain that they are father and son, but it is not clear which is which since they each have a son named after the other (i.e. Qar has a son named Idu, Idu has a son named Qar). Qar (G 7101) has a sister named Bendjyt who may be identical to Bendjet, a daughter of Idu (G 7102), in which case Idu would be the father of Qar, but this is not at all certain.
  • Rawer (G 8988)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 8988. Son of Itisen and Hetepheres. Entrance architrave, lintel and facade inscribed for Rawer, identified as [smr watj Hrj-tp nxb Hm-nTr Hr-jnpw xntj pr Smswt watj aD-mr Hr sbA xntj pt sm xrp SnDt xt mnw xrp aH Hrj-sStA n pr(-dwAt) Xrj-Hb wa m wrw Hb xrp Hwwt nt mw aD-mr dp Hm-nTr wADt jrj nfr-HAt] sole companion, chief of Nekheb, priest of Horus-Anubis who presides solely over the suite, administrator of the district 'Star-of-Horus-Foremost-of-Heaven', sem-priest, director of the kilt, khet-priest of Min, director of the palace, secretary of the House (of Morning), lector-priest, sole one of the great ones of the festival, director of mansions of mu-textiles(?), administrator of Dep, priest of Wadjet, keeper of the diadem; facade in situ, lintel and architrave fallen in front of entrance to G 8988. Inner door jambs inscribed for Rawer, identified as [jmj-r Xkrw nswt n jswj overseer of the king's ornaments in the two chambers; in situ in G 8988. Inscription along top of eastern wall of serdab 14 with titles [Hm-nTr nxbt Hm-ntr wADt smr watj n(j) mrwt] priest of Nekhbet, priest of Wadjet, sole companion, possessor of love; in situ in G 8988. Rawer appears on alabaster panel (JE 66626) in niche 14, identified as [Hrj-sStA n mdw-nTr] secretary of the sacred writings; in situ in G 8988. Inscribed limestone slab with title [Hm-nTr wADt p dp] priest of Wadjet in Pe and Dep; found displaced in G 8988. Inscribed limestone slab with title [jmj-r wabt] overseer of the wabet; found fallen from wall of first chamber of eastern passage in G 8988. Life-size limestone statue of Rawer, inscribed [jrj nfr-HAt (smsw?) wxrt aAt jr Sn nswt] keeper of the diadem, (elder?) of the great shipyard, royal hairdresser; found in back of second chamber of eastern passage in G 8988. Life-size limestone statue of Rawer, inscribed [jmj-jb n nb=f Hrj-sStA n nswt] he who is in the heart of his lord, secretary of the king; found in situ in serdab 12 of G 8988, along with limestone relief of biographical inscription (JE 66682). A large number of other inscribed statues and fragments of Rawer and his family found throughout G 8988 (including JE 66615, a quartzite "pseudo-group" statue of Rawer, and JE 66625, a limestone statue head of Rawer).
  • Rekhetre (G 8530)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Daughter of Khephren
  • Userkaf

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks First king of Dynasty 5. Horus name: [jrjmAat] Irymaat.

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Selim Hassan (Bey)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates Egyptian, 1886–1961
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Sub Director General. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1886-1961) Egyptian Egyptologist; born Mit-Nagi, 15 April 1886, he studied at the Higher Teacher's College, Cairo under Kamal (q.v.); in 1912 he became a teacher and in 1921 obtained a post in the Egyptian Museum as assistant keeper; he studied in Paris 1923-7 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes; he was the first Egyptian to be appointed as a Professor of Egyptology in the Universitv of Cairo, 1928 - 36; he was later made Deputy Director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service responsible for the care of all monuments in the Nile valley, 1936-39; Ph.D. Vienna University, 1935; stimulated by the archaeological work of P. E. Newberry (q.v.) and Junker (q.v.)he began an active career in excavations with the clearance of some of the Giza mastabas in 1929; the excavations carried on by him in this necropolis continued until 1939 by which time a great deal of digging had been achieved, published in 10 parts; he also cleared the Sphinx and its temple, for the first time completely digging out the great amphitheatre around it and ensuring that it would not be buried by send again so easily; he wrote a study on this work and on the temple of Amenhotep II here; in addition the so-called Fourth Pyramid or the palace-façade tomb of Queen Khent-kawes of the Fourth Dynasty was investigated and also the funerary town of the priests associated with it; he later worked on the Unas causeway at Saqqara and at the valley temple of this king, discovering some of the mastabas in this area and two great subterranean tombs dated to the Second Dynasty; his final excavations at Giza were carried out on the east and south faces of the Great Pyramid and at the mortuary temple of King Khufu, 1938-9; he also took part in the campaign to save the monments of Nubia, and wrote a report on this subject; he published about 53 books and articles on Egyptological subjects in English, French, and Arabic, Hymnes religieux du Moyen Empire, 1928; Le Poème dit de Pentaour et Le rapport officiel sur la bataiILe de Qadesh , 1929; Excavations at Giza, 10 pts., 1929-60; The Sphinx. Its History in the Light of recent Excavations, 1949; Report on the Monunents of Nubia,1955Excavations at Saqqara 1937-8, 3 vols., 1975; in Arabic Literature of Ancient Egpt, 2 vols.; Ancient Egypt from Prehistoric Times to the Age of Rameses 11, 6 vols.; he died in Giza, 30 Sept. 1961. AfO 20 (1963), 310 (H. Brunner); Archaeology 14, no, 4 (1961, 293; ASAE 58 (1964), 61- 84 (bibl.) (Dia Abou-Ghazi); Orientalia 31 (1962), 271; Goettinger Miszellen 76 (1984), 78-80; Reid, JAOS 105 (1985), 237, 241-44.