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*Original paper documents for Chapter 9 are in archival boxes K01 and K02 in the Egyptian Section archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.


  • Classification
    Documentation-Unpublished manuscripts
  • Department
    Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Credit Line
    Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition
  • Date
    about 1934–1942
  • Mentioned on page
    Georg Steindorff, German, 1861–1951
    William Stevenson Smith, American, 1907–1969
    Akhetmehu (G 2375)
    Iasen (G 2196)
    Irankhptah (G 4811+4812: G 4811)
    Ptahkhenui (G 2004)
  • Author
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942

Tombs and Monuments 6

  • G 2004

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2094

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2196

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 2375

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 4513

    • Site Name Western Cemetery
  • G 4811+4812

    • Site Name Western Cemetery

People 7

Ancient People

  • Akhetmehu (G 2375)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 2375. Architectural elements (pillars and architrave of pillared portico) and false door inscribed for Akhetmehu, identified as [sAb smsw hAjt r nxn wDa-mdw StA n Hwt wrt Hrj-sStA Hm-nTr mAat Hrj-wDbw] judge, elder of the court, mouth of Nekhen, judge of secret matters of the Great Court, secretary, priest of Maat, master of reversion-offerings; on architrave, identified as [sAb r nxn smsw hAjt Hrj-tp mdw n wDa-mdw StAw n Hwt wrt Hm-nTr mAat Hrj-sStA n wDa-mdw r nxn] judge, mouth of Nekhen, elder of the court, overlord of the words of secret judgements of the Great Court, priest of Maat, secretary of judgements, mouth of Nekhen (written twice); also appears in chapel recess relief, west wall (north of false door, Akhetmehu seated at offering table with Seshemnefer leading row of offering bearers below, and south of false door, Akhetmehu seated at offering table), north wall (marsh scene, depicting Akhetmehu and Hunetka with their sons Ankhirptah and Seshemnefer), south wall (including displaced blocks 35-11-96a and 35-11-96b, standing figures of Akhetmehu and Hunetka and son Ankhirptah receiving tribute); false door and relief in situ in G 2375, pillared portico reconstructed. Name and titles (including [r nxn wDa-mdw StAw Hm-nTr mAat smsw hAjt] mouth of Nekhen, judge of secret judgements, priest of Maat, elder of the court) appear on displaced inscribed block, along with those of wife Hunetka; found in chapel of G 2375 (possibly originally from south wall of chapel recess).
  • Iasen (G 2196)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 2196. Architectural elements: chapel outer entrance lintel inscribed for Iasen, identified as [jmj-r sjs xntjw-S pr-aA (jmj-r) Hrjw-a a nw nswt wab nswt sHD wabw xntj-S Hrj-sStA Hm-nTr xwfw] overseer of six palace attendants of the Great House, overseer of the authorisations of the royal decrees, royal wab-priest, inspector of wab-priests, palace attendant, secretary, priest of Khufu; drum lintel and south door jamb (name of male figure not preserved on north door jamb) inscribed for Iasen, identified as [sHD wabw xntj-S Hrj-sStA Hm-nTr xwfw rx nswt] inspector of wab-priests, palace attendant, secretary, priest of Khufu, royal acquaintance; chapel inner entrance door jambs uninscribed; also appears in chapel relief (north, south, east, and west walls) and rock-cut statue (west wall); in situ in G 2196.
  • Irankhptah (G 4811+4812: G 4811)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 4811+4812: G 4811. False door inscribed for Irankhptah, identified as [rx nswt jmj-r wabt jmj-r Hmwtjw n pr-aA jmj-r kAt nt nswt] royal acquaintance, overseer of the wabet, overseer of craftsmen of the Great House, overseer of royal works; also appears in chapel relief, west wall (panel of relief south of false door, standing figures of Irankhptah and his son Ptahrudj), east wall (north of entrance, lower part of standing figures of Irankhptah and his wife[?] sketched in red paint); lower part of false door and panel of relief still in situ in G 4811 south chapel.
  • Ptahkhenui (G 2004)

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Remarks Owner of G 2004. Limestone standing pair statue (MFA 06.1876) inscribed for Ptahkhenui and his wife (name not preserved); Ptahkhenui identified as [jmj-xt xntjw-S pr-aA] under-supervisor of palace attendants of the Great House; found in G 2004 serdab.

Modern People

  • Georg Steindorff

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1861–1951
    • Remarks Egyptologist and Copticist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology. (1861-1951) German Egyptologist and Copticist; he was born in Dessau, 12 Nov. 1861, son of Ludwig S. and Helen S.; he was educated at the Universities of Berlin and Gottingen, and was Erman's (q.v.) first student; Ph.D. Gott., 1884; afterwards appointed assistant in Berlin Museum, 1885-93; Professor of Egyptology at Leipzig, 1893 until 1938, where he founded the Egyptian Institute and filled it with objects from his excavations in Egypt and Nubia; Steindorff made a special study of Coptic and was with Crum (q.v.) the leading authority in the world during his lifetime; he was also interested in art and published books and articles on this subject as well as on Egyptian religion; he explored the Libyan Desert, 1899-1900; excavated at Giza, 1909-1 1, and in Nubia, 1912- 14 and 1930-1; he edited the ZAS for 40 years and contributed many articles to it; his studies in Coptic were of the utmost importance and his Coptic Grammar still remains a standard work of reference and perhaps the most popular ever written in this field; in philology as a whole he was in the first rank and established the rules which are gener- ally accepted for the vocalization of Egyptian; in 1939 he was forced to emigrate to America when the Nazis were in power in Germany, and started another career there at the age of nearly eighty; he continued his studies in the museums of New York, Boston, and Baltimore and the Oriental Institute of Chicago; Hon. Member of American Oriental Soc.; at Baltimore he compiled a 12-vol. MSS Catalogue of Egyptian antiquities in the Walters Art Gallery, which formed the basis for a later pub. work; both his 70th and 80th birthdays were the subject of tributes, see below; his published works are very numerous and his bibl. lists about 250 books, articles, and reviews, the first of which appeared in 1883, the last in the year of his death nearly 70 years later; Sassanidische Siegelsteine, with P. Horn, 1891; Koptische Grammatik mit Chrestomathie, Worterverzeichnis und Literatur, 1894, rev. ed. 1904; Grabfunde des Mittleren Reiches in den Koniglichen Museen zu Berlin. I. Das Grab des Mentuhotep, 1896; Die Apokalypse des Elias, eine unbekannte Apokalypse und Bruchstücke der Sophonias-Apokalypse. Koptische Text, Ubersetzung, Glossar, 1899; Die Blütezeit des Pharaonenreiches, 1900, rev. ed. 1926; Grabfunde des Mitt, Reiches in den Koniglichen Mus, zu Berlin, II. Der Sarg des Sebk-o. Ein Grabfund aus Gebelên, 1901; Durch die Libysche Wüste zur Amonoase, 1904; The Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, 1905; Koptische Rechtsurkunden des Achten Jahrhunderts aus Djëme, Theben, with W. E. Crum, 1912; Das Grab des Ti. Veroffentlichungen der Ernst von Sieglin Expedition in Agypten, vol. 2, 1913; Aegyten in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, 1915; Kurzer Abriss der Koptischen Grammatik mit Lesestücken und W?rterveyzeichnis, 1921;Die Kunst derAegypter. Bauten,Plaslik, Kunstgewerbe, 1928; Aniba, 1. Band with R. Heidenreich, F. Kretschmar, A. Langsdorff, and W. Wolf, 11. Band with M. Marcks, H. Schleif, and W. Wolf, 1935-7; Die Thebanische Graberwelt, with W. Wolf, 1936; When Egypt Ruled the East, with K. C. Seele, 1942; Egypt, text of Hoyningen-Huene, 1943; Catalogue of the Egyptian Sculpture in the Walters Art Gallery, 1946; Lehrbuch der Koptischen Grammatik, 1951; while in America he also wrote a Coptic-Egyptian Etymological Dictionary; The Origin of the Coptic Language and Literature: Prolegomena to the Coptic Grammar; The Proverbs of Solomon in Akhmimic Coptic according to a Papyrus in the State Library in Berlin, with a Coptic-Greek Glossary compiled by Carl Schmidt, he also edited many editions of Baedeker's Egypt, making it a standard work for all travellers and the best general guide available; he died in Hollywood, California, 28 Aug. 1951. AEB 28, 29; Bulletin Issued by. the Egyptian Educ. Bureau, London, n(. 58, Sept. 1951. 25 (anon);Chron. D'Eg.27 (I952), 391;JA0S 61 (1941), 288-9, Eightieth Anniversary. of Prof.Steindorff,J.H Breasted Jnr.;66.(1946), 76-87, The Writings of Georg Steindroff , J.H.Breasted Jnr.; 67 (1947) , 141-2,326-7; JEA 38 (1952), 2; Kürschner Corr .; The Times , 30 Aug. 1951; ZAS67 (1931), 1, Seventieth Birthday Tribute; ZAS79 (1954) , V-VI (portr.)(S.Morenz); E. Blumenthal,Altes ?gypten in Leipzig, 1918, 15-31 .
  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • William Stevenson Smith

    • Type Mentioned on page
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1907–1969
    • Remarks Egyptologist; Curator, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.