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Details

  • Format
    Article
  • Language
    ENGLISH
  • Series
    Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta
  • Year Published
    2007
  • Number of Pages
    15
  • Citation Text
    Flentye, Laurel. "The Development of Art in the Eastern and GIS Cemeteries at Giza during the Fourth Dynasty: Iconography and Style." In Jean-Claude Goyon and Christine Cardin, eds. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists, Grenoble, 6-12 septembre 2004, vol. I. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 150. Leuven: Uitgeveru Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies, 2007, pp. 721-735.
  • Editor
    Christine Cardin
    Jean-Claude Goyon
  • Individual - Ancient
    Akhethetep (G 7650)
    Ankh-haf (G 7510)
    Bauefre (G 7310-7320)
    Djaty (G 7810)
    Djedefre
    Duaenhor (G 7550)
    Duaenre (G 5110)
    Hemiunu (G 4000)
    Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)
    Horbaef (G 7410-7420)
    Hordjedef (G 7210-7220)
    Iynefer (G 7820)
    Kaemnefret (Mastaba III)
    Kaemsekhem (G 7660)
    Kawab (G 7110-7120)
    Khafre
    Khemetnu-nedjes (in G 7530-7540)
    Khufu
    Khufudjedef (Mastaba IV)
    Khufukhaf [I] (G 7130-7140)
    Menkaure
    Meresankh II (G 7410-7420)
    Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)
    Meretites (G 7650)
    Mindjedef (G 7760)
    Minkhaf (G 7430-7440)
    Nefermaat (G 7060)
    Nefretka (in G 7130-7140)
    Nefretkau (G 7050)
    Nefretkau (G 7820)
    Snefrukhaf (G 7070)
  • Author
    Laurel Flentye, American
  • Publisher
    Peeters Publishers
  • Individual - Modern
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
    Hermann Junker, German, 1877–1962

Tombs and Monuments 4

Finds 8

People 36

Ancient People

  • Akhethetep (G 7650)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner (with wife Meretites) of G 7650. Identified as [Hm-nTr xwfw smr watj Hm (bAw) nxn xrp aH aD-mr wHaw (Apdw) ] priest of Khufu, sole companion, priest of the bas of Nekhen, director of the palace, administrator of fishers(/fowlers).
  • Ankh-haf (G 7510)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7510. Husband of Hetepheres.
  • Bauefre (G 7310-7320)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Question if name is correct.
  • Djaty (G 7810)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
  • Djedefre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Third king of Dynasty 4. Son (?) of Khufu.
  • Duaenhor (G 7550)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Parents probably Kawab and Hetepheres II.
  • Duaenre (G 5110)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 5110. Appears in chapel relief (west, south, east, and north walls [only lower legs and feet preserved in situ on west, east, and north walls], and chapel entrance north and south door jambs), and displaced fragment of lintel (MFA 34.1465), identified as [sA nswt n Xt=f jrj(-pat) HAtj-a tAjtj sS mDAt-nTr r nxn r p nb] king's son of his body, hereditary (prince), count, vizier, scribe of the divine book, mouth of Nekhen, mouth of every Butite; in situ in G 5110. Uninscribed sarcohpagus of Duaenre (Turin S.1838, Turin S.1839); Schiaparelli excavations. Possibly same individual as Duare (in G 3098b) and/or Duaenre (in G 8172).
  • Hemiunu (G 4000)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 4000. Probable son of Nefermaat (owner of tomb at Meidum), probable grandson of Snefru. Architectural elements, including chapel entrance lintel (Hildesheim 2380) and door jamb (Hildesheim 2146), inscribed for Hemiunu, identified as [jrj-pat HAtj-a xtmw-bjtj] hereditary prince, count, sealer of the king of Lower Egypt; door jamb found in situ in G 4000. Seated statue (Hildesheim 1962) inscribed for Hemiunu, identified as [sA nswt n XT=f tAjtj sAb TAtj wr djw pr-DHwtj] king's son of his body, chief justice and vizier, greatest of the five of the House of Thoth; found in situ in G 4000 serdab behind north niche.
  • Hetepheres II (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Original owner of G 7110, along with Kawab (owner of G 7120). Appears with her daughter Meresankh III in G 7530-7540 (east and west walls, main room), and in pair statue MFA 30.1456 (= 27-4-963 + 27-4-964 + 27-4-965). Later married to a king, possibly Djedefre (Radjedef) according to Reisner, but Khafre is also a possibility. Her association with G 7350, and its sarcophagus is uncertain. Also mentioned in tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Horbaef (G 7410-7420)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Horbaef, husband of Meresankh II, is buried in G 7420.
  • Hordjedef (G 7210-7220)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Hordjedef was buried in G 7220.
  • Iynefer (G 7820)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Husband of Princess Nefretkau (G 7820), possibly the daughter of Queen Meresankh II.
  • Kaemnefret (Mastaba III)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Mastaba III. Granite sarcophagus (Hildesheim 3177) inscribed for Kaemnefret, identified as [Xrj-tp nswt] royal chamberlain; found in situ in Mastaba III shaft 66 burial chamber.
  • Kaemsekhem (G 7660)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7660.
  • Kawab (G 7110-7120)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7120, along with Hetepheres [II] (original owner of G 7110). Son of Khufu and Meretites [I]. Appears in chapel relief in tomb of his daughter Meresankh III (owner of G 7530-7540), main room (east wall), identified as [jrj-pat sA nswt smsw n Xt=f Xrj-Hb Hrj-tp xrp jAwt nTrt aA dwAw] hereditary prince, king's eldest son of his body, chief lector-priest, director of divine offices, assistant of (the god) Duau; in situ in G 7530-7540). Also mentioned in tomb of his steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Khafre

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fourth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khufu. Builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and probably of the Great Sphinx as well. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Khephren. A number of diorite and greywacke statues and statue fragments depicting the king have been discovered in Khafre's valley temple, including Cairo CG 9-17. The fragmentary head of an alabaster royal statue (MFA 21.351 + MFA 33.1113) is attributed to Khafre.
  • Khemetnu-nedjes (in G 7530-7540)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Appears on pillar in east wall of west room, tomb of Meresankh III, identified as [jmj-r pr jmj-r Hmw-kA sS] steward, overseer of ka-priests, scribe; in situ. Probable son of Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Khufu

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Second king of Dynasty 4, son of Snefru. Builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Cheops. Horus name: [mDdw] Medjedu. Full birth-name: Khnum-Khufu.
  • Khufudjedef (Mastaba IV)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of Mastaba IV. Appears in chapel relief (south wall, and name partially preserved on fragment from elsewhere in chapel), identified as [Hrj-wDbw nswt] master of royal reversion-offerings; south wall in situ in Mastaba IV interior chapel. Red granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 53149) inscribed for Khufudjedef, identified as [sA nswt] king's son; found in situ in Mastaba IV shaft S 68 burial chamber.
  • Khufukhaf [I] (G 7130-7140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Khufu and probably Henutsen. He is buried in G 7140.
  • Menkaure

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Fifth king of Dynasty 4. Son of Khafre. Husband of Khamerernebti II. Builder of the Third Pyramid at Giza. Known two thousand years later by the Greeks as King Mycerinus.
  • Meresankh II (G 7410-7420)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Meresankh buried in G 7410.
  • Meresankh III (G 7530-7540)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7530-7540.Granddaughter of King Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and wife of either Khafre or Menkaure. Her unique underground chapel (labeled G 7530-7540) preserves beautifully carved and painted scenes of the queen and her royal family, as well as servants, artisans, and funerary priests. The scenes also depict the sort of rich burial goods that would have been placed in Meresankh’s tomb: statues and fine furniture; boxes containing food, clothing, and jewelry; even a representation of the black granite sarcophagus that was actually found in situ in her burial chamber. Chapel entrance architrave, jambs, reveals and drum inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts nbwj xt Hr wrt Hst DHwtj smrt Hr mrt=f sAt nswt n Xt=f Hmt nswt mrt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Lords, khet-priestess of Horus, great of praises of Thoth, companion of Horus, his beloved, king's daughter of his body, beloved king's wife; in situ in G 7530-7540. Appears in chapel relief of main room: seated holding lotus (south wall); standing with her mother (east wall), idenitifed as [wrt Hts] great one of the hetes-scepter; on pillars (north wall), idenitifed as [tjst Hr] intimate(?) of Horus; seated at offering table, standing north of false door and on central pillar, and with her mother and son (west wall), idenitifed as [Hm-nTr DHwtj wrt Hts nbtj Hm-nTr bApf Hm-nTr HwtHr nbt jwnt smAwt mrjj nbtj] priestess of Thoth, great one of the hetes-scepter of the Two Ladies, priestess of Bapef, priestess of Hathor Mistress-of-Dendera, consort of him who is beloved of the Two Ladies; in situ in G 7530-7540. Also appears on all walls of offering (west) room; in situ in G 7530-7540. Architrave on north wall of north room inscribed for Meresankh; uninscribed statues may also represent Meresankh (along with other female family members); in situ in G 7530-7540. Black granite sarcophagus (Cairo JE 54935) inscribed for Meresankh, idenitifed as [xrp sSmtjw SnDt] director of butchers of the 'Acacia House'; in situ in burial chamber of G 7530-7540. Incomplete limestone statue of Meresankh (MFA 30.1457) and pair statue of Meresankh and Hetepheres II (MFA 30.1456); found displaced in debris of main room. Mother ([mwt=f] his mother) of Nebemakhet (owner of G 8172 = Lepsius 86). Appears in relief of inner chapel (above doorway in eastern wall), identified as [mAAt Hr stX wrt Hts wrt Hst Hmt nswt] seer of Horus and Seth, great one of the hetes-scepter, great of praises, king's wife; in situ in G 8172. Also mentioned in the tomb of her steward Khemetnu (owner of G 5210).
  • Meretites (G 7650)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner (with husband Akhethetep) of G 7650. Identified as [sAt nswt n Xt=f Hm-nTr xwfw Hm-nTr HwtHr Hm-nTr Nt] king's daughter of his body, priestess of Khufu, priestess of Hathor, priestess of Neith. Parents are probably Khufu and Meretites [I].
  • Mindjedef (G 7760)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Owner of G 7760. Red granite sarcophagus (29-4-442 = MMA 54.80a, b) inscribed for Mindjedef; found in G 7760 B.
  • Minkhaf (G 7430-7440)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
  • Nefermaat (G 7060)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Nefertkau.
  • Nefretka (in G 7130-7140)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Daughter of Khufukaf [I] (owner of G 7130-7140); appears as small girl behind her father on north inner jamb of chapel, identified as [sAt nswt]. Possibly also on south inner jamb, unlabeled.
  • Nefretkau (G 7050)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Probably Daughter of Snefru Probably Mother of Nefermaat (G 7060)
  • Nefretkau (G 7820)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
  • Snefrukhaf (G 7070)

    • Type Individual - Ancient
    • Remarks Son of Nefermaat and grandson of Nefertkaw

Modern People

  • Christine Cardin

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates
  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Hermann Junker

    • Type Individual - Modern
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1877–1962
    • Remarks Egyptologist, Director of German-Austrian expedition to Giza, 1911–1929. Published 12 volumes of final excavation reports from Giza expedition. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Jean-Claude Goyon

    • Type Editor
    • Nationality & Dates
  • Laurel Flentye

    • Type Author
    • Nationality & Dates American

Institutions 1