Skip to main content
This site is under construction. Thank you for your patience.

Lepsius 20, belonging to Persen, is a stone-built mastaba north of Mastaba X in the central sector of the Abu Bakr Cemetery. Lepsius 21 is the brick-built northern chapel of Lepsius 20, which seems to have been usurped by Irukakhufu. Part of the "Persen Complex."

Details

  • Tomb Owner
    Irukakhufu (Lepsius 21)
    Persen (Lepsius 20)
  • Excavator
    (Karl) Richard Lepsius, German, 1810–1884
    Abdel Moneim Youssef Abu Bakr, 1907–1976
    Edward Brovarski
  • Attested
    Kheni (in Lepsius 20)
    Meret (in Lepsius 20)
    Neshut (in Lepsius 20)
    Tjentet (in Lepsius 20)
  • Lepsius No
    LG 20
    LG 21
    Lepsius 20
    Lepsius 21
    L.20
    L.21
    LG 20-21
  • Baer Date
    Early Dynasty 5.
  • Harpur Date
    Userkaf - Sahure
  • Kanawati Date
    Djedkare - Unis
  • Reisner Date
    late Menkaure - post-Neferirkare
  • Strudwick Date
    Early Dynasty 5
  • PorterMoss Date
    Probably early Dynasty 5
  • Site Type
    Stone-built mastaba
  • Shafts
    2 shafts; 2 serdabs; chapel
  • Remarks
    Abu-Bakr Excavation (1950-51). Recleared in 2000 by Cairo Univ - Brown Univ Expedition. Lepsius 19, Mastaba X, and Lepsius 20-21 were probably roughly contemporaneous and may have formed a family complex within a brick-built palace-facade enclosure wall, along with a double row of small, contiguous mud-brick mastabas just east of Lepsius 19 and Mastaba X (ABC 2 - ABC 4, ABC 7 - ABC 19).

Finds 2

Excavation Diary Pages 1

Maps & Plans 1

Drawings 3

Published Documents 6

Unpublished Documents 8

Full Bibliography

  • Brovarski 2018

    Handoussa & Brovarski, Preliminary Report on the 2000 Field Season of the Cairo University - Brown University Expedition, pp. 1-4

    Leclant, in Orientalia, N.S. 21 (1952), p. 240, fig. 12.

    Lehmann, Katja. Der Serdab in den Privatgräbern des Alten Reiches 1-3. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universität Heidelberg, 2000, Kat. G281-G282.

    Lepsius, Carl Richard. Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Text 1: Unteraegypten und Memphis. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1897, pp. 44-5.

    Lepsius, Carl Richard. Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Plates 2, Band 3. Berlin: Nicolaische Buchhandlung, 1849-1859, fig. 17d.

    Lepsius, Carl Richard. Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Plates 2, Band 4. Berlin: Nicolaische Buchhandlung, 1849-1859, fig. 83a-b.

    Lepsius, Carl Richard. Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Ergänzungsband. Berlin: Nicolaische Buchhandlung. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1913, fig. 8.

    Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 48-9, plans 17, 24.

    Reisner, George A. A History of the Giza Necropolis 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1942, pp. 217, 311.

Photos 58

People 9

Ancient People

  • Irukakhufu (Lepsius 21)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Owner of Lepsius 21. False door (north end of east wall) inscribed for Irukakhufu, identified as [rx nswt jmj-r Axt-xwfw wab (nswt)] royal acquaintance, overseer of the pyramid-town of Khufu, (royal) wab-priest; in situ in Lepsius 21. Two large limestone offering stands inscribed for Irukakhufu, identified as [wr mdw Sma] great one of the tens of Upper Egypt; found in Abu Bakr Magazine, originally set in northernmost entrance pavement (ABC 30) of Lepsius 21. Uninscribed painted limestone scribal statue (JE 99130), perhaps representing Irukakhufu; found in Lepsius 21 serdab. Possibly same individual as son of Senenu found in Senenu (1).
  • Kheni (in Lepsius 20)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Daughter (?) of Persen (owner of Lepsius 20). Appears on west wall, top row, kneeling before her parents, identified as [Hm-nTr HwtHr Hm-nTr Nt] priestess of Hathor, priestess of Neith; in situ in Lepsius 20.
  • Meret (in Lepsius 20)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Daughter ([sAt] daughter) of Persen (owner of Lepsius 20). Appears on west wall, second row, kneeling before her parents; in situ in Lepsius 20.
  • Neshut (in Lepsius 20)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Wife ([Hmt=f] his wife) of Persen (owner of Lepsius 20). Appears on east and west walls with her husband, identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; in situ in Lepsius 20.
  • Persen (Lepsius 20)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Owner of Lepsius 20. Appears on south, east and west walls, and southern false door inscribed for Persen, identified as [rx nswt wr mDw Sma xrp Hmw-nTr sS a nswt jmj-r kAt nbt nt nswt] royal acquaintance, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, director of priests, royal document scribe, overseer of all royal works; in situ in Lepsius 20.
  • Tjentet (in Lepsius 20)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Daughter (?) of Persen (owner of Lepsius 20). Appears on west wall, top row, kneeling before her parents, identified as [Hm-nTr HwtHr Hm-nTr Nt rxt nswt] priestess of Hathor, priestess of Neith, royal acquaintance; in situ in Lepsius 20.

Modern People

  • (Karl) Richard Lepsius

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates German, 1810–1884
    • Remarks Egyptologist. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.
  • Abdel Moneim Youssef Abu Bakr

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates 1907–1976
    • Remarks Egyptian Egyptologist.
  • Edward Brovarski

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates
    • Remarks Egyptologist and co-director of the Cairo University-Brown University Excavations (CBE) in the Abu Bakr Cemetery.