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Details

  • Tomb Owner
    Nefer (G 2110)
  • Excavator
    George Andrew Reisner, American, 1867–1942
  • Attested
    Ankh (in G 2110)
    Ari (in G 2110)
    Iperi (in G 2110)
    Iymery (in G 2110)
    Kairi (in G 2110)
    Khentikauf (in G 2110)
    Khuenptah(?) (in G 2110)
    Mesi (in G 2110)
    Muti (in G 2110)
    Nefermeket (in G 2110)
    Nefershemem (in G 2110)
    Nefru (in G 2110)
    Nefru-nedjes (in G 2110)
    Nenteni (in G 2110)
    Persen (in G 2110)
    Reri (in G 2110)
    Senenuka (in G 2110)
    Seshemu (in G 2110)
    Wenankhes (in G 2110)
    Weni (in G 2110)
    Wenkaef (in G 2110)
    Wenu (in G 2110)
  • Junker No
    IX 1
  • Begelsbacher-Fischer Date
    End of Dyn. 4-early Dyn. 5
  • Harpur Date
    Khafre
  • Strudwick Date
    Khafre or later
  • Baer Date
    End Dyn. 4 to early Dyn. 5
  • Cherpion Date
    Dyn. 4: not later than Djedefre
  • PorterMoss Date
    Khafre
  • Site Type
    Stone-built mastaba
  • Shafts
    G 2110 A; G 2110 M; G 2110 N; G 2110 O; G 2110 P; G 2110 Q; G 2110 R; G 2110 S; G 2110 T; G 2110 U; G 2110 V; G 2110 W; G 2110 X; G 2110 Y; G 2110 Z
  • Remarks
    Junker originally named this mastaba VIII 1.

Finds 11

Excavation Diary Pages 32

Maps & Plans 45

Drawings 19

Published Documents 12

Unpublished Documents 54

Full Bibliography

  • Jánosi, Peter. "Der Tote vor dem Opfertisch. Die Opferplatten von Giza. Besprechung des Buches Slab Stelae of the Giza Necropolis von Peter Der Manuelian." Sokar 10 (1. Halbjahr 2005), pp. 22, 23, note 9.

    Jánosi, Peter. "Aspects of Mastaba Development: The Position of Shafts and the Identification of Tomb Owners." In Filip Coppens, ed. Abusir and Saqqara in the year 2001. Proceedings of the Symposium (Prague, September 25th-27th, 2001). Archiv Orientální 70, No. 3 (August 2002). Prague: Oriental Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, pp. 345-346, figs. 1-2.

    Jánosi, Peter. "The Tombs of Officials. Houses of Eternity." In Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999, pp. 30-31, fig. 15c.

    Junker, Hermann. Gîza 3. Die Mastabas der vorgeschrittenen V. Dynastie auf dem Westfriedhof. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien Philosophisch-historische Klasse Denkschriften. Vienna & Leipzig: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1938, p. 36 [17].

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Eight Years at the Giza Archives Project: Past Experiences and Future Plans for the Giza Digital Archive." Egyptian and Egyptological Documents, Archives, and Libraries, An Annual 1 (Milan, 2009), p. 151, note 7. 

    Manuelian, Peter Der. Slab Stelae of the Giza Necropolis. Publications of the Pennsylvania-Yale Expedition to Egypt 7. New Haven & Philadelphia: Peabody Museum of Natural History of Yale University & University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2003, pp. 91, 136, 137, 161, 162, 164, figs. 243- 246.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Hemiunu, Pehenptah, and German/American Collaboration at the Giza Necropolis (Giza Archives Project Gleanings: II)." In Antje Spiekermann, ed. Zur Zierde gereicht. . . Festschrift Bettina Schmitz zum 60. Geburtstag am 24. Juli 2008, HIldesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge 50. Hildesheim: Verlag Gebrüder Gerstenberg, 2008, p. 29, 31, 32, notes 17, 23.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "A Re-examination of Reisner's Nucleus Cemetery Concept at Giza. Preliminary Remarks on Cemetery G 2100." In Miroslav Bárta, ed. The Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology. Proceedings of the Conference held in Prague, May 31-June 4, 2004. Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology, 2006, pp. 223-225, fig. 2.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Unfinished Business: The Giza Tablet of Tjenti (JE 72135)." In Mamdouh Eldmaty and Mai Trad, eds. Egyptian Museum Collections Around the World: Studies for the Centennial of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Cairo: Supreme Council of Antiquities, 2002, pp. 778-780, 788, fig. 1.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. "Digital Epigraphy at Giza." Egyptian Archaeology 17 (Autumn 2000), pp. 26–27.

    Manuelian, Peter Der. “The Problem of the Giza Slab Stelae.” In Stationen: Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Ägyptens: Festschrift für Rainer Stadelmann. Edited by Heike Guksch and Daniel Polz. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1998, p. 120.

    Porter, Bertha, and Rosalind L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings 3: Memphis (Abû Rawâsh to Dahshûr). Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931. 2nd edition. 3: Memphis, Part 1 (Abû Rawâsh to Abûsîr), revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1974, pp. 72-74, plans 11, 25.

    Reisner, George A. A History of the Giza Necropolis 1. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1942, pp. 422-425.

    Reisner, George A., and Clarence S. Fisher. "Preliminary Report on the Work of the Harvard-Boston Expedition in 1911-13." Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Egypte 13 (1914), pp. 227, 230, 232, 236-237, 241, 247.

    Smith, William Stevenson. "The Old Kingdom Linen List." Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 71 (1935), pp. 135, 143.

    Smith, William Stevenson. "The Origin of Some Unidentified Old Kingdom Reliefs." American Journal of Archaeology 46 (1942), pp. 509, 515, 530.

    Smith, William Stevenson. "Inscriptional Evidence for the History of the Fourth Dynasty." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 11 (1952), pp. 117, 126, fig. 5.

    Strudwick, Nigel. "Three Monuments of Old Kingdom Treasury Officials." Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 71 (1985), p. 44.

Photos 560

3D Models 1

Videos 1

People 24

Ancient People

  • Ankh (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears twice in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (bottom register) and displaced block of relief from south door jamb (Louvre B 51) (middle register), identified in both places as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; blocks originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel and chapel entrance, respectively.
  • Ari (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (bottom register), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Iperi (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (second register from bottom), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Iymery (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears twice in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 937) (top register, name only partially preserved) and displaced block of relief from south door jamb (Louvre B 51) (middle register), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; blocks originally from G 2110, east wall of chapel and chapel entrance, respectively.
  • Kairi (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (second register from bottom), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Khentikauf (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief from north door jamb (MFA 07.1002) (one of four scribes, third figure from left), identified as [sS] scribe; originally from G 2110, chapel entrance.
  • Khuenptah(?) (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 937) (top register), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, east wall of chapel.
  • Mesi (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief from south door jamb (Louvre B 51) (bottom register), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, chapel entrance.
  • Muti (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Limestone offering basin (38-2-2) inscribed for Muti, identified as [rxt nswt] royal acquaintance; found displaced in G 2110 R.
  • Nefer (G 2110)

    • Type Tomb Owner
    • Remarks Owner of G 2110. Appears in chapel relief (south, west, and east walls; not all instances with inscription preserved), identifed as [(sAb) nxt-xrw HqA Hwt jmj-r sSw Xrt-a nswt Hrj-sStA nswt m swt nb sS pr-aA] strong-of-voice (of the judiciary), chief of the estate, overseer of scribes of the portfolios of the king, secretary of the king in all places, scribe of the Great House; in situ in G 2110. Displaced fragments of relief (three unregistered fragments + 36-12-2 = MFA 31.780), upper part of standing figures of Nefer and Wenankhes; originally from G 2110, south wall of chapel (lower part of figures still in situ). Displaced blocks of relief from south door jamb (Louvre B 51) and north door jamb (MFA 07.1002) inscribed for Nefer, identifed as [jmj-r Xkrw nswt nb xrp aprw nfrw jmj-r stj DfAw jmj-r pr-aHAw wr mDw Sma rx nswt jmj-r prwj-HD] overseer of all royal ornaments, director of crews of recruits, overseer of the two places of provisions, overseer of the house of weapons, great one of the tens of Upper Egypt, royal acquaintance, overseer of the two treasuries; originally from G 2110, chapel entrance. Displaced false door tablet with crossbar = lower lintel (Museo Barracco 1) inscribed for Nefer, identified as [jmj-r sSw aprw jmj-r pr-HD] overseer of scribes of the crews, overseer of the treasury; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel. Limestone drum lintel (UPM_E13531) inscribed for Nefer, identified as [jmj-r sSw aprw xrp aprw nfrw sS a nswt jmj-r pr-HD] overseer of scribes of the crews, director of crews of recruits, royal document scribe, overseer of the treasury; found reused in G 3015, originally from G 2110, chapel entrance. Limestone reserve head (MFA 06.1886) attributed to Nefer; found in G 2110 A.
  • Nefermeket (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (second register from bottom), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Nefershemem (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (bottom register), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Nefru (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief from north door jamb (MFA 07.1002) (one of four scribes, first figure on left), identified as [sS] scribe; originally from G 2110, chapel entrance.
  • Nefru-nedjes (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 937) (bottom register), identified as [sS] scribe; originally from G 2110, east wall of chapel.
  • Nenteni (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (second register from bottom), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Persen (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears twice in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 937) (top register) and displaced block of relief from south door jamb (Louvre B 51) (bottom register), identified in both places as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; blocks originally from G 2110, east wall of chapel and chapel entrance, respectively.
  • Reri (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (bottom register), identified as [sSmw] butcher; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Senenuka (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief from north door jamb (MFA 07.1002) (one of four scribes, last figure on right), identified as [sS] scribe; originally from G 2110, chapel entrance. Possibly same individual as Senenuka Keki (owner of G 2041).
  • Seshemu (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (bottom register), identified as [sSmw] butcher; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Wenankhes (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Wife of Nefer (owner of G 2110). Appears in chapel relief (south, west, and east walls; not all instances with inscription preserved); in situ in G 2110. Displaced fragments of relief (three unregistered fragments + 36-12-2 = MFA 31.780), upper part of standing figures of Nefer and Wenankhes, identified as [rxt nswt mjtrt] royal acquaintance, mitret; originally from G 2100, south wall of chapel (lower part of figures still in situ). Name reconstructed from partially in situ scene of seated couple on west wall of chapel, supplemented by fragments with rest of wife's name; one (unregistered) in expedition photo B8335, other now in Birmingham Museum of Art (England) 1957A 241 (see: Reisner, Giza Necropolis I, fig. 241, and Fischer, Varia, pp. 31-32, pl. VIII fig. 7, fig. 8). Name incorrectly reconstructed by Reisner as Meresankh.
  • Weni (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief from north door jamb (MFA 07.1002) (one of four scribes, second figure from left), identified as [sS pr Hrj-wDbw] scribe of the house, master of reversion-offerings; originally from G 2110, chapel entrance.
  • Wenkaef (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (second register from bottom), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.
  • Wenu (in G 2110)

    • Type Attested
    • Remarks Appears in chapel relief in tomb of Nefer (owner of G 2110), displaced block of relief (Copenhagen AEIN 819) (second register from bottom), identified as [Hm-kA] ka-priest; originally from G 2110, west wall of chapel.

Modern People

  • George Andrew Reisner

    • Type Excavator
    • Nationality & Dates American, 1867–1942
    • Remarks Egyptologist, archaeologist; Referred to as "the doctor" and "mudir" (Arabic for "director") in the excavation records. Nationality and life dates from Who was Who in Egyptology.